Score
Title
437
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
868
I know it takes two weeks for the flu vaccine to be fully effective. I assume effectiveness is zero right before the vaccine is administered, and maximum after two weeks. But is there a graph that shows how effectiveness changes in time?
8616
Why is the Congo River so deep?
37
Why is the separation constant for the radial equation of the Hydrogen atom in the form of L(L+1)?
17
If the capacity of a battery charging another battery drops below that of the receiving battery, will it stop transferring electricity since the electrons will no longer prefer to leave the lower energy "state" of the drained battery?
35
How/why are so many mathematical proofs and theorems contingent on the Riemann hypothesis being true?
7444
Are there any predators that hunt for sport rather than for food?
18
Do they update the voyager software?
20
Does language affect learning and studying?
23
When water does down the drain, why does it always go down the drain in a form of whirlpool.?
1
How did the Russian Woodpecker receiver work?
11
From what I have learnt so far, refrigerators use chlorofluorocarbons for cooling. Do these chlorofluorocarbons run out after some time? If yes how are they replenished?
16
What makes things transparent?
17
What allows certain cars and airplanes to have their own Wifi?
29
What causes the thick mist/fog that I frequently see coming off of mountains in my area?
11
What exactly happens to a person's behavior after a lobotomy?
7
How Bayes rule was used to help with aiming cannons?
3
Is a Colliod a state of matter?
5
Is there a limit to the energy density of batteries?
0
What kind of waves on the Electromagnetic Spectrum do metal detectors use to isolate only metal and no other materials?
7
How do particle accelerators such as the LHC detect particle collision products?
21
Many poisonous and venomous vertebrates get their toxins from toxic arthropods that form part of their diets. Why can't they just form the toxins themselves the same ways their prey do?
194
Why are hail storms so short?
68
If aliens were to look at earth through a telescope from 65 million lightyears away, would they see dinosaurs?
13
Why does fire flicker?
34
What exactly is string theory and how does it work?
10724
What exactly does the cold virus do to me to make me so weak?
8
I understand conduction and radiation as modes of heat transfer, but convection confuses me. Why does fluid moving over an object remove heat from it as opposed to adding heat due to friction?
3
How do marine mammals keep their testes cool?
12
Are initial telomere lengths fairly consistent in mammals? Barring external circumstances, do they decay at the same rate?
2
Is it possible light has a mass?
7
How much does it actually cost to maintain the internet?
14
What happens to the brain as you fall asleep? Are certain proteins released to induce sleep? Is it seen as a voluntary or involuntary action?
9
How do transitors amplify?
17
Why does an animal like the sea otter have a long gestation period (145-325 days) but only have a lifespan of 15 years or so. Is there a relationship between gestation period and lifespan across marine mammals like that/or any other mammal?
9
Which modern encryption standards would be both practical to implement on a large scale using technology from the 1940s and still effectively unbreakable today?
13
What is the significance of a quasar discovered at 690 million years after big bang?
5
Why do we find little animals cute?
5
How do drug companies decide on the form(s) of delivery for a given drug?
2
Why does water not heat up through the friction created by movement (ocean waves/shaking it in a bottle)?
3
Will the "dark" side of the Moon become visible from earth?
1 rmateus Username: /u/rmateus General field: Decision Analysis Specific field: Multicriteria value measurement and mathematical programming Particular areas of research include multicriteria analysis, optimization, tender evaluation, data science Education: Litentiate in Industrial Engineering, MSc in Operations Research, PhD in Engineering and Management, researcher for several years Comments:
2 Academic_Affairs Username: /u/Academic_Affairs General field: Physics Specific Field: Particle Physics Particular areas of research: Experimental indirect dark matter detection, gamma ray astronomy Education: B.A. Physics, Astrophysics (double major), 2nd year graduate student pursuing Ph.D. Comments: New account, so they can all be seen succinctly at: https://www.reddit.com/user/Academic_Affairs/
2 Gobbedyret Username: /u/Gobbedyret General field: Biology Specific field: Bioinformatics, metagenomics Areas of research: DNA sequencing, DNA/protein sequence analysis, molecular evolution, gut microbiome and metagenomic binning. Education: BSc in biology w. focus on molecular biology. MSc in genomics & proteomics. Currently doing a PhD in metagenomic binning and microbiome/host co-evolution. Comments (*note: There are very few questions in bioinformatics/metagenomics): [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7bkwt0/do_all_people_see_exactly_the_same_range_of_light/dpmmky7/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/369tx7/why_are_human_genetically_closer_related_to/crcw6a5/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/2gjdb1/what_is_the_signaltonoise_ratio_of_dna_and_how/ckjv4kw/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/3usj20/if_gene_x_has_a_glycine_at_10_does_everyone_have/cxicilq/), [5](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/4qoung/why_cant_cold_blooded_animals_regulate_their_body/d4v3y6o/), [6](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/3hbqu3/is_the_luciferase_bioluminescent_reaction_in_any/cu6v3y4/)
1 bohoky Username: /u/bohoky General field: anthropology Specific field: evolutionary psychology Particular areas of research: primatology, evolutionary basis of behavior, cognitive science Particular areas of research: Evolution of Sex Differences in Cognition (published: *J. Comp. Psych.*), former R.A. to primary researcher (hold a B.S. myself) Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7e6bez/why_cant_we_remember_much_from_our_infancy/) (probably more if I looked for them) Application recommended by /u/electric_ionland; I have read and accept the commenting guidelines.
4 djsedna Username: /u/djsedna General field: Astrophysics Specific field: Binary Stars & Stellar Populations Particular areas of research include K dwarfs, cool stars, globular clusters, galactic mergers, long-term galactic entropy. Education: B.S. in Physics, currently a Ph.D. student in Astrophysics, researching multiplicity of K dwarf stars. Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7b4t7j/was_the_super_massive_black_hole_at_the_center_of/dpg0s0d/) [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/69mjxt/do_rainbows_also_have_sections_in_the_infrared/dh8cu4p/) [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/4bc4x7/what_is_the_maximum_masssize_a_star_can_reach/d18a9mu/)
6 chupacabrasaurus1 Username: /u/chupacabrasaurus1 General Field: Biology Specific Field: Zoology Particular areas of research include behavioral ecology, animal welfare, ethology Education: MA Zoology, BA Psychology, several years experience assisting with research as a volunteer for a large organization. Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77ujyv/can_deaf_people_get_tinnitus/dopohlp/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77vagr/why_are_sloths_so_slow/dopnx18/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7aeicg/why_do_songs_get_stuck_in_our_head/dpa1kzu/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7aeicg/why_do_songs_get_stuck_in_our_head/dpbo492/). edit: adding more comment links.
1 flatearth212 Username: /u/flatearth212 General field: Astronomy Specific field: Computational Relativity Particular areas of study: Numerical methods for astrophysics, gravitational wave research, binary black hole/black hole neutron star mergers Education: MS in applied mathematics, second year phd student in the same. Disclaimer: Not a flat earther, if that wasn't obvious. Comments: [1] (https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78tmca/is_gravity_different_in_certain_spots_on_earth/doxt8iw/?st=j9aif0a0&sh=fd166985) [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7949fv/can_there_be_an_orbit_around_a_black_hole_in/doziqz4/?st=j9aigmdq&sh=4dd20b1f) [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/792tk7/is_there_a_schwarzschild_radius_for_an_object_to/dozjglv/?st=j9aih4u6&sh=79302a97) [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78z7cw/is_there_any_possible_relation_between_the/dozkqff/?st=j9aihf72&sh=c84fe20f) The fourth comment is outside my area of expertise, but I've been reading up on CMB lately so I thought I'd give it a shot.
1 DaBlueCaboose Username: /u/DaBlueCaboose General field: Engineering Specific field: Aerospace Engineering Particular areas of study include rocket propulsion, space propulsion, satellite navigation, and orbital mechanics Education: Bachelor of Aerospace Engineering Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78rk06/can_satellites_be_in_geostationary_orbit_at/dow6ov6/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78rk06/can_satellites_be_in_geostationary_orbit_at/dowbfk4/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/75o0kv/why_rocket_engine_exhaust_pipe_is_shaped_like_a/do83l3t/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/75o0kv/why_rocket_engine_exhaust_pipe_is_shaped_like_a/do8fb09/) I know the requirements say at least a MSc. or equivalent but /u/VeryLittle asked me to post here to get flair, so I figured the worst you could say is no.
1 El_Portero Username: /u/el_portero General Field: Physics Specific Field: Nuclear Physics Particular area of intrest include radation detection, redation effects on electronics, nuclear matterials, and nuclear processes. Education: B.A.Physics. M.A. Nuclear Engineering Coments [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77yqbe/why_do_electrons_have_a_constant_mass/dorrkhp/?context=3)
2 danielchorley Username: /u/danielchorley General field: Chemistry Specific field: Organic Chemistry Particular areas of research: Synthesis and purification of complex natural products, structural analysis, NMR Education: PhD (organic chemistry, 2015), academic (1 yr) and industrial post-doc (1 yr); BSc (1st Hons: Chem & Bio). Self- taught interest in conceptual quantum mechanics, medicinal chemistry, and astronomy. Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/chemhelp/comments/7b2udh/dumb_question_can_lone_pairs_occur_in_ionic/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/chemhelp/comments/7awljk/the_reactivity_of_ethyl_chloride_chloroethane/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/chemistry/comments/7arnsx/why_is_hbr_produced_instead_of_diatomic_hydrogen/), [4] (https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77w95d/why_is_drinking_fluoridated_water_safe_if/doqzuzb/), [5](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7803rh/do_hydrogen_isotopes_affect_chemical_structure_of/doqn9m1/), [6](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77lle9/how_does_a_high_or_pure_acid_have_a_low_ph/donzllx/), [7](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/772t5z/do_we_know_for_a_fact_that_there_are_only_118/dorf2i0/). edit: added additional references (Nov 7th)
3 a_skeptic_medic username: /u/A_SKEPTIC_MEDIC General field: medicine Specific field: surgery, medicine, cancer research, neuroscience Particular areas of research include emergency medicine ( subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke and thrombolysis), neurology, oncology (prostate cancer, cancer epigenetics, hypoxia, signalling pathways) and neuroscience ( gut-brain axis) Education: B Sc in health science; final year medicine (BM BS) Comments: https://www.reddit.com/r/Foamed/comments/6qzdzy/thrombolysis_in_45hrs_or_3_hrs/
1 0 rmateus Username: /u/rmateus General field: Decision Analysis Specific field: Multicriteria value measurement and mathematical programming Particular areas of research include multicriteria analysis, optimization, tender evaluation, data science Education: Litentiate in Industrial Engineering, MSc in Operations Research, PhD in Engineering and Management, researcher for several years Comments:
3 0 TheBobathon Username /u/TheBobathon I'm already added, but haven't commented in AskScience for ages ([1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/1f4x51/are_monopole_magnets_theoretically_possible/ca6uo0x/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/rizh8/how_does_the_gravity_work_on_earth/c467gh3/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/1h04vn/can_someone_explain_a_4d_object_to_me/capju0y/)). I'd like to change my flair to simply "Quantum Physics"
2 0 Academic_Affairs Username: /u/Academic_Affairs General field: Physics Specific Field: Particle Physics Particular areas of research: Experimental indirect dark matter detection, gamma ray astronomy Education: B.A. Physics, Astrophysics (double major), 2nd year graduate student pursuing Ph.D. Comments: New account, so they can all be seen succinctly at: https://www.reddit.com/user/Academic_Affairs/
2 0 Gobbedyret Username: /u/Gobbedyret General field: Biology Specific field: Bioinformatics, metagenomics Areas of research: DNA sequencing, DNA/protein sequence analysis, molecular evolution, gut microbiome and metagenomic binning. Education: BSc in biology w. focus on molecular biology. MSc in genomics & proteomics. Currently doing a PhD in metagenomic binning and microbiome/host co-evolution. Comments (*note: There are very few questions in bioinformatics/metagenomics): [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7bkwt0/do_all_people_see_exactly_the_same_range_of_light/dpmmky7/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/369tx7/why_are_human_genetically_closer_related_to/crcw6a5/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/2gjdb1/what_is_the_signaltonoise_ratio_of_dna_and_how/ckjv4kw/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/3usj20/if_gene_x_has_a_glycine_at_10_does_everyone_have/cxicilq/), [5](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/4qoung/why_cant_cold_blooded_animals_regulate_their_body/d4v3y6o/), [6](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/3hbqu3/is_the_luciferase_bioluminescent_reaction_in_any/cu6v3y4/)
3 0 rpfeynman18 Username: /u/rpfeynman18 General field: Physics Specific field: Experimental Particle Physics Particular areas of research: CMS data analysis / LHC physics Education: M.S. degree in physics, currently in 4th year of PhD, based at CERN Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7c63al/is_it_possible_to_shoot_an_electron_straight_into/dpomtgr/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7c3h5i/can_particle_accelerators_be_used_for_spacecraft/dponle0/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7c3h5i/can_particle_accelerators_be_used_for_spacecraft/dpq3pat/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/72ouwv/why_do_electrons_have_kinetic_energy/dnkmv7d/), [5](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7etgjz/when_there_is_a_momentum_transfer_between_two/dq8ktu2/)
3 0 YaztromoX Username: /u/YaztromoX General field: Computing Specific field: Systems Software Particular areas of research include operating systems, programming languages, data synchronization Education: M.Sc. in Computer Science; researcher, instructor, and >20 years industry experience Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7dhet0/why_doesnt_010203_in_java/dq4uai3/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7dzrph/is_having_a_higher_bandwidth_get_you_to_hit_your/dq4th3g/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7dknhg/if_every_digital_thing_is_a_bunch_of_1s_and_0s/dpz81ls/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7cs6op/is_a_cdr_a_reliable_timestamp_for_a_files/dq7t2zw/), [5](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7eqfe4/how_does_restricting_internet_work/dq84e34/).
1 0 bohoky Username: /u/bohoky General field: anthropology Specific field: evolutionary psychology Particular areas of research: primatology, evolutionary basis of behavior, cognitive science Particular areas of research: Evolution of Sex Differences in Cognition (published: *J. Comp. Psych.*), former R.A. to primary researcher (hold a B.S. myself) Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7e6bez/why_cant_we_remember_much_from_our_infancy/) (probably more if I looked for them) Application recommended by /u/electric_ionland; I have read and accept the commenting guidelines.
4 0 djsedna Username: /u/djsedna General field: Astrophysics Specific field: Binary Stars & Stellar Populations Particular areas of research include K dwarfs, cool stars, globular clusters, galactic mergers, long-term galactic entropy. Education: B.S. in Physics, currently a Ph.D. student in Astrophysics, researching multiplicity of K dwarf stars. Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7b4t7j/was_the_super_massive_black_hole_at_the_center_of/dpg0s0d/) [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/69mjxt/do_rainbows_also_have_sections_in_the_infrared/dh8cu4p/) [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/4bc4x7/what_is_the_maximum_masssize_a_star_can_reach/d18a9mu/)
6 0 chupacabrasaurus1 Username: /u/chupacabrasaurus1 General Field: Biology Specific Field: Zoology Particular areas of research include behavioral ecology, animal welfare, ethology Education: MA Zoology, BA Psychology, several years experience assisting with research as a volunteer for a large organization. Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77ujyv/can_deaf_people_get_tinnitus/dopohlp/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77vagr/why_are_sloths_so_slow/dopnx18/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7aeicg/why_do_songs_get_stuck_in_our_head/dpa1kzu/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7aeicg/why_do_songs_get_stuck_in_our_head/dpbo492/). edit: adding more comment links.
1 0 flatearth212 Username: /u/flatearth212 General field: Astronomy Specific field: Computational Relativity Particular areas of study: Numerical methods for astrophysics, gravitational wave research, binary black hole/black hole neutron star mergers Education: MS in applied mathematics, second year phd student in the same. Disclaimer: Not a flat earther, if that wasn't obvious. Comments: [1] (https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78tmca/is_gravity_different_in_certain_spots_on_earth/doxt8iw/?st=j9aif0a0&sh=fd166985) [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7949fv/can_there_be_an_orbit_around_a_black_hole_in/doziqz4/?st=j9aigmdq&sh=4dd20b1f) [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/792tk7/is_there_a_schwarzschild_radius_for_an_object_to/dozjglv/?st=j9aih4u6&sh=79302a97) [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78z7cw/is_there_any_possible_relation_between_the/dozkqff/?st=j9aihf72&sh=c84fe20f) The fourth comment is outside my area of expertise, but I've been reading up on CMB lately so I thought I'd give it a shot.
1 0 DaBlueCaboose Username: /u/DaBlueCaboose General field: Engineering Specific field: Aerospace Engineering Particular areas of study include rocket propulsion, space propulsion, satellite navigation, and orbital mechanics Education: Bachelor of Aerospace Engineering Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78rk06/can_satellites_be_in_geostationary_orbit_at/dow6ov6/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/78rk06/can_satellites_be_in_geostationary_orbit_at/dowbfk4/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/75o0kv/why_rocket_engine_exhaust_pipe_is_shaped_like_a/do83l3t/), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/75o0kv/why_rocket_engine_exhaust_pipe_is_shaped_like_a/do8fb09/) I know the requirements say at least a MSc. or equivalent but /u/VeryLittle asked me to post here to get flair, so I figured the worst you could say is no.
1 0 El_Portero Username: /u/el_portero General Field: Physics Specific Field: Nuclear Physics Particular area of intrest include radation detection, redation effects on electronics, nuclear matterials, and nuclear processes. Education: B.A.Physics. M.A. Nuclear Engineering Coments [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77yqbe/why_do_electrons_have_a_constant_mass/dorrkhp/?context=3)
2 0 danielchorley Username: /u/danielchorley General field: Chemistry Specific field: Organic Chemistry Particular areas of research: Synthesis and purification of complex natural products, structural analysis, NMR Education: PhD (organic chemistry, 2015), academic (1 yr) and industrial post-doc (1 yr); BSc (1st Hons: Chem & Bio). Self- taught interest in conceptual quantum mechanics, medicinal chemistry, and astronomy. Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/chemhelp/comments/7b2udh/dumb_question_can_lone_pairs_occur_in_ionic/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/chemhelp/comments/7awljk/the_reactivity_of_ethyl_chloride_chloroethane/), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/chemistry/comments/7arnsx/why_is_hbr_produced_instead_of_diatomic_hydrogen/), [4] (https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77w95d/why_is_drinking_fluoridated_water_safe_if/doqzuzb/), [5](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7803rh/do_hydrogen_isotopes_affect_chemical_structure_of/doqn9m1/), [6](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77lle9/how_does_a_high_or_pure_acid_have_a_low_ph/donzllx/), [7](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/772t5z/do_we_know_for_a_fact_that_there_are_only_118/dorf2i0/). edit: added additional references (Nov 7th)
3 0 a_skeptic_medic username: /u/A_SKEPTIC_MEDIC General field: medicine Specific field: surgery, medicine, cancer research, neuroscience Particular areas of research include emergency medicine ( subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke and thrombolysis), neurology, oncology (prostate cancer, cancer epigenetics, hypoxia, signalling pathways) and neuroscience ( gut-brain axis) Education: B Sc in health science; final year medicine (BM BS) Comments: https://www.reddit.com/r/Foamed/comments/6qzdzy/thrombolysis_in_45hrs_or_3_hrs/
1 0 monkeynose Username: /u/MONKEYNOSE General field: Psychology Specific field: Clinical Psychology Particular areas of research include psychopathology, suicidality, and abnormal psychology. Education: BA in Psychology, MA in clinical mental health counseling, trained at a major metropolitan hospital psychiatric unit Comments: [1](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/6smniz/schizophrenia_are_voices_ever_perceived_as/dmagsoy/), [2](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/765v81/does_exorcism_have_any_therapeutic_efficacy/dofhrx5/?context=3), [3](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/777cry/does_delaying_gratification_on_purpose_have_any/dolh3cl/?context=3), [4](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/759huj/are_sociopaths_aware_of_their_lack_of_empathy_and/don7fsa/), [5](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/77y8in/is_there_a_difference_in_suicide_rates_between/dor34fm/), [6](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/790oh3/what_do_we_know_about_post_traumatic_stress_in/dp1egt5/) [7](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/79xyzp/can_perception_of_temperature_affect_mood/dp6b4ke/), [8](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7avqyz/is_there_any_evidence_that_untargeted_murders/dpdrdm1/)