Score
Title
382
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
7363
I’ve read that when caterpillars are in their cocoons, they dissolve completely into goo; no original parts survive in the butterfly. How is the butterfly made from the goo? Is there an embryo that grows and uses the goo like a yolk sac? Or does the goo somehow arrange itself into new body parts?
104
How sustainable is our landfill trash disposal model in the US? What's the latest in trash tech?
16392
With all this fuss about net neutrality, exactly how much are we relying on America for our regular global use of the internet?
54
If tooth decay is just caused by the bacteria feeding and producing acid, would a person that just used listerine have the same dental health as a person that brushed without flossing?
16
Does boiling water in a low pressure atmosphere still kill pathogens?
16
My doctor says that chemotherapy works by specifically targeting rapidly-dividing cells, which is how it works to fight cancer and also why it has the side effects that it does. But how does it “know” which cells are rapidly dividing? And how rapidly is “rapidly”?
8
How mixable are different types of plastic? Like PET and HDPE?
15
How are isotopes used in nuclear physics Experiments isolated?
848
In 1996 NASA announced 'evidence of primitive life on early Mars'. In 2000, a second report supported the thesis. What happened next?
3
How are the needles for Atomic Force Microscopes made, and how can the tip be smaller than the atoms they are manipulating? What are their limitations?
8
How are the triple(or more) parachutes commonly seen on capsules returning from space kept apart?
3
What makes a laser shine in a straight line?
82819
Help us fight for net neutrality!
1
How do scientists determine the weight of huge (extinct) animals?
2
what's the difference between ZW and XY chromosomes, how did they evolve, and why are ZW organisms homogametic for males where XY organisms are heterogametic?
4
What's the current state of AIDS? Is it still basically a death sentence, or is it manageable? What are the consequences of getting AIDS nowadays?
1
What happened to the Global Cooling scare of the 1980's?
0
If a pipe was run from space straight into the ocean would water run up it and flow into space?
2
Can animals understand human body language like laughing or smiling?
2
Lithium batteries are being developed to power cars in response to the decline in fossil fuels, but will lithium eventually run out as well?
1
Question from my 4 year old sister, do other animals also get "Boogers"?
1
Is there any short-term geothermal or atmospheric effect that is caused by the sun heating one "side" of the earth at a time?
14
Could an electric vehicle stand a chance in a racing event?
23
If there is an ocean below the ice surface of Europa, is the ice shell buoyant? Geologically supported? Or is it kept in place by the distribution of gravity?
1
Is there a mathematical relationship between Moire patterns, Chladni plate vibration patterns, and the pattern formed by rings when making different cuts from wood?
2
Would readers of character based languages (e.g Chinese) experience dyslexia differently since they don't use strings of letters?
3
How to calculate eigenvalues in the Kirchhoff's thin plate model?
27
Do all individual atoms in a solid emanate their own blackbody radiation?
14
Is there anywhere other than Earth in the Solar system where you could see a total solar eclipse and/or total lunar eclipse equivalent?
4
How did we get solid matter from light? How did Photons and Electrons create solid matter in the early ages of the universe when everything was insanely hot?
3
Since the event at CERN that proved the existence of Higgs bosons/Higgs field, can we now see this event happen regularly now we know ‘where’ to look?
8
Why does turning on an electric blender in the kitchen cause my HD antenna signal to go out in a different room?
6
Can the human body survive breathing pure oxygen at lower pressures?
14
When beryllium-16 decays and produces 2 neutrons simultaneously, what happens to that dineutron?
6
How do we know the earth’s core is super hot and why is it so?
1
How does the pressure of the vacuum of space affect the ISS?
11184
From my kid: Can you put a marshmallow on a stick out into space and roast it with the sun?
3
Given that cerebrospinal fluid flows around the structures of the brain, would messenger chemicals from synaptic activity in one area be passed to, and alter synaptic activity in other regions of the brain?
9
How do we know what the tonsil does?
2
In a compound with an alkene and an alkyne, which would ozone cleave in an oxidative cleavage reaction?
917 chthonicutie TL;DR yes, but not by virtue of superoceans themselves. I am not sure of the effects of supercontinents on their own, but I can answer this question in the context of Earth's history, specifically the end [Permian](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian) mass extinction event, which took place in the time of Pangaea. I am a graduate student in geology and currently studying mass extinction events. /u/Neolavitz is right in that the biggest limiting factor for tropical storm growth is ocean water temperature. To elaborate... When certain conditions are met, the oceans can become very warm. One such warming event (called a Hothouse state) took place at the end of the Permian, when the [Great Dying](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian%E2%80%93Triassic_extinction_event) occurred. It is thought that this Hothouse state was triggered by a massive eruption at the [Siberian Traps](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_Traps), which released enormous amounts of CO2 and other nasty compounds onto the surface of the planet. One of the consequences of this was dramatically slowed ocean circulation in a haline mode. A haline mode "generates warm saline bottom water that heats the ocean" (166), which transfers heat from the equator to the poles. This is in contrast to our present cycle, where deep ocean currents transport cold water to low latitudes, creating a gradient of heat and overall cooler oceans worldwide. In the Hothouse state, cyclones, which are restricted to about 40 degrees of latitude N or S in our current climatic regime, may traverse the entire globe (90N and 90S) thanks to worldwide elevated ocean temperatures. They would also create a positive feedback situation: > As storms reached to higher latitudes, they would help deliver more heat to those regions. That would, in turn, further warm higher latitude surface waters, making it more likely that subsequent storms would have an ever-greater poleward reach. Polar storms would also lead to increased polar cloudiness, which would impede surface heat radiation to space, thus warming the poles even more. Magntitude of storms would increase. Modern cyclones are limited in their size by colder, deeper waters. The bases of their waves reach the colder deep waters and lose heat and energy. In a warmed ocean, this restraint would no longer exist. Kidder and Worsley specifically say, "the cyclone-magnitude governor would be **completely removed** in a Hothouse..." (emphasis mine). So to answer your third question, no, there are theoretically no limiting factors in a very warm, humid situation. To answer your fourth question, the vast, dry deserts of Pangaea were the most likely stopping zones for these storms, as they would be deprived of moisture in the deserts. Source: > Kidder, D.L., and Worsley, T.R., 2010, Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), HEATT (Haline Euxinic Acidic Thermal Transgression) episodes, and mass extinctions: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 295, p.162-191.
386 [deleted] [removed]
1550 Neolavitz My understanding is that there were what are known as hypercanes. These theoretic storms would require an ocean temperature around 120° f and would produce Mach .6 winds. I'm not aware of if they actually happened though during our Pangaea era they likely did hope this helps op. I guess I'll add in some more info. Hurricanes need warm water to grow theoretically there is little to no known limit to how powerful they can become just depends on how long they have been at sea and the ocean temperature at that time. General consensus is a hurricane becomes a hyper cane at Sub 700mbar pressure or around 400mph sustained wind. The conditions for this to happen would be around 120 + ° ocean temps deeper than 100 meters and little to no windsheer or land impact. Some additional info for everyone the 700 mbar number and 400mph winds are just the scientific community consensus at this point it could be weaker or stronger to be classified as a hypercane i personally would say anything under 800mbar and 300 mph winds would qualify putting needed ocean temp at around 108° f Edit: on phone autocorrection Edit 2: a sauce for those interested https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypercane Edit 3: sauce for anyone interested in global warming affect on hurricanes and man vs nature global warming. https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/global-warming-and-hurricanes/ Edit4: for the rest of the world 50°c is 120°f and 400mph is 640kph sorry I forgot to include you guys
76 [deleted] Unrelated to superoceans per se, but I have read a theory about 'hypercanes' proposed by a professor from MIT named Kerry Emanuel. Any analysis of that is beyond me as a layperson, but I believe the full text of his paper is available online if anyone was interested in confirming how reasonable or unlikely his ideas might be. EDIT: Here's a link to the paper for those interested! [Tropical Cyclones - Kerry Emanuel](https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiAnIOpoJvWAhUk5IMKHdw1DGYQFgg0MAI&url=ftp%3A%2F%2Ftexmex.mit.edu%2Fpub%2Femanuel%2FPAPERS%2Fannrevfinal.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHd1Xo28shD96bUX5CIDvl89Qv2nQ)
919 0 chthonicutie TL;DR yes, but not by virtue of superoceans themselves. I am not sure of the effects of supercontinents on their own, but I can answer this question in the context of Earth's history, specifically the end [Permian](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian) mass extinction event, which took place in the time of Pangaea. I am a graduate student in geology and currently studying mass extinction events. /u/Neolavitz is right in that the biggest limiting factor for tropical storm growth is ocean water temperature. To elaborate... When certain conditions are met, the oceans can become very warm. One such warming event (called a Hothouse state) took place at the end of the Permian, when the [Great Dying](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian%E2%80%93Triassic_extinction_event) occurred. It is thought that this Hothouse state was triggered by a massive eruption at the [Siberian Traps](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_Traps), which released enormous amounts of CO2 and other nasty compounds onto the surface of the planet. One of the consequences of this was dramatically slowed ocean circulation in a haline mode. A haline mode "generates warm saline bottom water that heats the ocean" (166), which transfers heat from the equator to the poles. This is in contrast to our present cycle, where deep ocean currents transport cold water to low latitudes, creating a gradient of heat and overall cooler oceans worldwide. In the Hothouse state, cyclones, which are restricted to about 40 degrees of latitude N or S in our current climatic regime, may traverse the entire globe (90N and 90S) thanks to worldwide elevated ocean temperatures. They would also create a positive feedback situation: > As storms reached to higher latitudes, they would help deliver more heat to those regions. That would, in turn, further warm higher latitude surface waters, making it more likely that subsequent storms would have an ever-greater poleward reach. Polar storms would also lead to increased polar cloudiness, which would impede surface heat radiation to space, thus warming the poles even more. Magntitude of storms would increase. Modern cyclones are limited in their size by colder, deeper waters. The bases of their waves reach the colder deep waters and lose heat and energy. In a warmed ocean, this restraint would no longer exist. Kidder and Worsley specifically say, "the cyclone-magnitude governor would be **completely removed** in a Hothouse..." (emphasis mine). So to answer your third question, no, there are theoretically no limiting factors in a very warm, humid situation. To answer your fourth question, the vast, dry deserts of Pangaea were the most likely stopping zones for these storms, as they would be deprived of moisture in the deserts. Source: > Kidder, D.L., and Worsley, T.R., 2010, Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), HEATT (Haline Euxinic Acidic Thermal Transgression) episodes, and mass extinctions: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 295, p.162-191.
394 0 [deleted] [removed]
1553 0 Neolavitz My understanding is that there were what are known as hypercanes. These theoretic storms would require an ocean temperature around 120° f and would produce Mach .6 winds. I'm not aware of if they actually happened though during our Pangaea era they likely did hope this helps op. I guess I'll add in some more info. Hurricanes need warm water to grow theoretically there is little to no known limit to how powerful they can become just depends on how long they have been at sea and the ocean temperature at that time. General consensus is a hurricane becomes a hyper cane at Sub 700mbar pressure or around 400mph sustained wind. The conditions for this to happen would be around 120 + ° ocean temps deeper than 100 meters and little to no windsheer or land impact. Some additional info for everyone the 700 mbar number and 400mph winds are just the scientific community consensus at this point it could be weaker or stronger to be classified as a hypercane i personally would say anything under 800mbar and 300 mph winds would qualify putting needed ocean temp at around 108° f Edit: on phone autocorrection Edit 2: a sauce for those interested https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypercane Edit 3: sauce for anyone interested in global warming affect on hurricanes and man vs nature global warming. https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/global-warming-and-hurricanes/ Edit4: for the rest of the world 50°c is 120°f and 400mph is 640kph sorry I forgot to include you guys
74 0 [deleted] Unrelated to superoceans per se, but I have read a theory about 'hypercanes' proposed by a professor from MIT named Kerry Emanuel. Any analysis of that is beyond me as a layperson, but I believe the full text of his paper is available online if anyone was interested in confirming how reasonable or unlikely his ideas might be. EDIT: Here's a link to the paper for those interested! [Tropical Cyclones - Kerry Emanuel](https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiAnIOpoJvWAhUk5IMKHdw1DGYQFgg0MAI&url=ftp%3A%2F%2Ftexmex.mit.edu%2Fpub%2Femanuel%2FPAPERS%2Fannrevfinal.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHd1Xo28shD96bUX5CIDvl89Qv2nQ)