Score
Title
9439
Megathread: 2017 Hurricane Season
47
Earthquake Megathread
5027
Nutrition Facts: Why is sodium listed instead of salt?
5
If NASA's mission to Mars is successful, will Mars become American Territory?
6
How heavy is fire? If something catches on fire is it heavier or lighter?
9952
Duck fat melts at 57 degrees Fahrenheit. So on a 90 degree day, is a living duck's fat just... sloshing around?
15
How does deodorant work?
15
What gas is inside of unopened peppers? Or is it just air?
6
How much Asteroid mining/extra mass until it has an impact on earth's orbit?
1
What is a kilowatt hour, and why do electric companies charge based on this instead of kilowatts?
4
Why is drinking milk after spicy foods better than drinking water?
192
If natural fruit juices contain large amounts of sugar, why do we only seem to refine sugars from a select few plants (sugarcane, sugar beets) instead of from fruits in general?
152
What have we learned from Cassini's dive into Saturn so far?
78
Why do hospitals have heart clinics specifically for Women? Aren't all hearts the same?
279
How does computer memory work when the computer is turned off?
45
Do ape's toenails grow slower than their fingernails, like humans?
8399
What have been the implications/significance of finding the Higgs Boson particle?
1
If we want to colonise mars, why don't we colonise it first with Cyanobacteria and then plants in order to create a habitable atmosphere?
97
Can microwaves work without using water molecules to heat up food?
7
Why does the fourth power show up in the Stefan–Boltzmann law?
7
When I scratch a piece of metal, do small amounts of atoms break off from it?
5
Do lactose intolerant people absorb the same amount of calories from milk as regular people?
3
What has kept land animals from evolving to enormous sizes, i.e. the size of a mountain?
14
How do they prevent the ISS from crashing into satellites and space junk?
29
Do small songbirds - a finch, say - ever get stung by bees/ wasps? If so, is it typically fatal?
45
It's been about 5 years since the Mochizuki's ABC Conjecture proof was originally published. What's its current status?
1
How do vaccines fail?
8
Does Quinine glow even after you remove it from a black light?
7
Can we forecast the northern and/or southern lights?
240
On a planet with more than 1 sun, what would a rainbow look like?
6
What can layers and swrils in rock indicate?
5
How do insects protect their eyes from direct sunlight?
4
Why can't you count the number of things touching you in a certain spot?
216
We are carbon based life forms, however, is it possible for life to be based off another element?
124
Is there a maximum size for a raindrop?
6
In a coronary bypass surgery, why do doctors use veins instead of arteries? Is there an advantage to this?
2110
Are there any challenges for parasites living in animal blood?
14
How real is the threat of human extinction by gamma ray bursts?
3
What happens when wind / a fluid is put through a T-shaped tube, where the bottom of the T is closed off, but the two sides are open? What happens to the fluid in the closed, vertical tube?
46
Is learning another language simply additive to your mother tongue, or is the second language "separate" in your brain?
8
What is actually happening when an electric current flows through an a salt solution or a molten salt?
3
How can Burning wood (carbon) generate UV radiation?
911 chthonicutie TL;DR yes, but not by virtue of superoceans themselves. I am not sure of the effects of supercontinents on their own, but I can answer this question in the context of Earth's history, specifically the end [Permian](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian) mass extinction event, which took place in the time of Pangaea. I am a graduate student in geology and currently studying mass extinction events. /u/Neolavitz is right in that the biggest limiting factor for tropical storm growth is ocean water temperature. To elaborate... When certain conditions are met, the oceans can become very warm. One such warming event (called a Hothouse state) took place at the end of the Permian, when the [Great Dying](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian%E2%80%93Triassic_extinction_event) occurred. It is thought that this Hothouse state was triggered by a massive eruption at the [Siberian Traps](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_Traps), which released enormous amounts of CO2 and other nasty compounds onto the surface of the planet. One of the consequences of this was dramatically slowed ocean circulation in a haline mode. A haline mode "generates warm saline bottom water that heats the ocean" (166), which transfers heat from the equator to the poles. This is in contrast to our present cycle, where deep ocean currents transport cold water to low latitudes, creating a gradient of heat and overall cooler oceans worldwide. In the Hothouse state, cyclones, which are restricted to about 40 degrees of latitude N or S in our current climatic regime, may traverse the entire globe (90N and 90S) thanks to worldwide elevated ocean temperatures. They would also create a positive feedback situation: > As storms reached to higher latitudes, they would help deliver more heat to those regions. That would, in turn, further warm higher latitude surface waters, making it more likely that subsequent storms would have an ever-greater poleward reach. Polar storms would also lead to increased polar cloudiness, which would impede surface heat radiation to space, thus warming the poles even more. Magntitude of storms would increase. Modern cyclones are limited in their size by colder, deeper waters. The bases of their waves reach the colder deep waters and lose heat and energy. In a warmed ocean, this restraint would no longer exist. Kidder and Worsley specifically say, "the cyclone-magnitude governor would be **completely removed** in a Hothouse..." (emphasis mine). So to answer your third question, no, there are theoretically no limiting factors in a very warm, humid situation. To answer your fourth question, the vast, dry deserts of Pangaea were the most likely stopping zones for these storms, as they would be deprived of moisture in the deserts. Source: > Kidder, D.L., and Worsley, T.R., 2010, Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), HEATT (Haline Euxinic Acidic Thermal Transgression) episodes, and mass extinctions: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 295, p.162-191.
386 [deleted] [removed]
1550 Neolavitz My understanding is that there were what are known as hypercanes. These theoretic storms would require an ocean temperature around 120° f and would produce Mach .6 winds. I'm not aware of if they actually happened though during our Pangaea era they likely did hope this helps op. I guess I'll add in some more info. Hurricanes need warm water to grow theoretically there is little to no known limit to how powerful they can become just depends on how long they have been at sea and the ocean temperature at that time. General consensus is a hurricane becomes a hyper cane at Sub 700mbar pressure or around 400mph sustained wind. The conditions for this to happen would be around 120 + ° ocean temps deeper than 100 meters and little to no windsheer or land impact. Some additional info for everyone the 700 mbar number and 400mph winds are just the scientific community consensus at this point it could be weaker or stronger to be classified as a hypercane i personally would say anything under 800mbar and 300 mph winds would qualify putting needed ocean temp at around 108° f Edit: on phone autocorrection Edit 2: a sauce for those interested https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypercane Edit 3: sauce for anyone interested in global warming affect on hurricanes and man vs nature global warming. https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/global-warming-and-hurricanes/ Edit4: for the rest of the world 50°c is 120°f and 400mph is 640kph sorry I forgot to include you guys
74 _what_door_ Unrelated to superoceans per se, but I have read a theory about 'hypercanes' proposed by a professor from MIT named Kerry Emanuel. Any analysis of that is beyond me as a layperson, but I believe the full text of his paper is available online if anyone was interested in confirming how reasonable or unlikely his ideas might be. EDIT: Here's a link to the paper for those interested! [Tropical Cyclones - Kerry Emanuel](https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiAnIOpoJvWAhUk5IMKHdw1DGYQFgg0MAI&url=ftp%3A%2F%2Ftexmex.mit.edu%2Fpub%2Femanuel%2FPAPERS%2Fannrevfinal.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHd1Xo28shD96bUX5CIDvl89Qv2nQ)
920 0 chthonicutie TL;DR yes, but not by virtue of superoceans themselves. I am not sure of the effects of supercontinents on their own, but I can answer this question in the context of Earth's history, specifically the end [Permian](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian) mass extinction event, which took place in the time of Pangaea. I am a graduate student in geology and currently studying mass extinction events. /u/Neolavitz is right in that the biggest limiting factor for tropical storm growth is ocean water temperature. To elaborate... When certain conditions are met, the oceans can become very warm. One such warming event (called a Hothouse state) took place at the end of the Permian, when the [Great Dying](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian%E2%80%93Triassic_extinction_event) occurred. It is thought that this Hothouse state was triggered by a massive eruption at the [Siberian Traps](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_Traps), which released enormous amounts of CO2 and other nasty compounds onto the surface of the planet. One of the consequences of this was dramatically slowed ocean circulation in a haline mode. A haline mode "generates warm saline bottom water that heats the ocean" (166), which transfers heat from the equator to the poles. This is in contrast to our present cycle, where deep ocean currents transport cold water to low latitudes, creating a gradient of heat and overall cooler oceans worldwide. In the Hothouse state, cyclones, which are restricted to about 40 degrees of latitude N or S in our current climatic regime, may traverse the entire globe (90N and 90S) thanks to worldwide elevated ocean temperatures. They would also create a positive feedback situation: > As storms reached to higher latitudes, they would help deliver more heat to those regions. That would, in turn, further warm higher latitude surface waters, making it more likely that subsequent storms would have an ever-greater poleward reach. Polar storms would also lead to increased polar cloudiness, which would impede surface heat radiation to space, thus warming the poles even more. Magntitude of storms would increase. Modern cyclones are limited in their size by colder, deeper waters. The bases of their waves reach the colder deep waters and lose heat and energy. In a warmed ocean, this restraint would no longer exist. Kidder and Worsley specifically say, "the cyclone-magnitude governor would be **completely removed** in a Hothouse..." (emphasis mine). So to answer your third question, no, there are theoretically no limiting factors in a very warm, humid situation. To answer your fourth question, the vast, dry deserts of Pangaea were the most likely stopping zones for these storms, as they would be deprived of moisture in the deserts. Source: > Kidder, D.L., and Worsley, T.R., 2010, Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), HEATT (Haline Euxinic Acidic Thermal Transgression) episodes, and mass extinctions: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 295, p.162-191.
389 0 [deleted] [removed]
1552 0 Neolavitz My understanding is that there were what are known as hypercanes. These theoretic storms would require an ocean temperature around 120° f and would produce Mach .6 winds. I'm not aware of if they actually happened though during our Pangaea era they likely did hope this helps op. I guess I'll add in some more info. Hurricanes need warm water to grow theoretically there is little to no known limit to how powerful they can become just depends on how long they have been at sea and the ocean temperature at that time. General consensus is a hurricane becomes a hyper cane at Sub 700mbar pressure or around 400mph sustained wind. The conditions for this to happen would be around 120 + ° ocean temps deeper than 100 meters and little to no windsheer or land impact. Some additional info for everyone the 700 mbar number and 400mph winds are just the scientific community consensus at this point it could be weaker or stronger to be classified as a hypercane i personally would say anything under 800mbar and 300 mph winds would qualify putting needed ocean temp at around 108° f Edit: on phone autocorrection Edit 2: a sauce for those interested https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypercane Edit 3: sauce for anyone interested in global warming affect on hurricanes and man vs nature global warming. https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/global-warming-and-hurricanes/ Edit4: for the rest of the world 50°c is 120°f and 400mph is 640kph sorry I forgot to include you guys
74 0 _what_door_ Unrelated to superoceans per se, but I have read a theory about 'hypercanes' proposed by a professor from MIT named Kerry Emanuel. Any analysis of that is beyond me as a layperson, but I believe the full text of his paper is available online if anyone was interested in confirming how reasonable or unlikely his ideas might be. EDIT: Here's a link to the paper for those interested! [Tropical Cyclones - Kerry Emanuel](https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiAnIOpoJvWAhUk5IMKHdw1DGYQFgg0MAI&url=ftp%3A%2F%2Ftexmex.mit.edu%2Fpub%2Femanuel%2FPAPERS%2Fannrevfinal.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHd1Xo28shD96bUX5CIDvl89Qv2nQ)