TL;DR yes, but not by virtue of superoceans themselves.
I am not sure of the effects of supercontinents on their own, but I can answer this question in the context of Earth's history, specifically the end [Permian](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian
) mass extinction event, which took place in the time of Pangaea. I am a graduate student in geology and currently studying mass extinction events.
/u/Neolavitz is right in that the biggest limiting factor for tropical storm growth is ocean water temperature. To elaborate...
When certain conditions are met, the oceans can become very warm. One such warming event (called a Hothouse state) took place at the end of the Permian, when the [Great Dying](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian%E2%80%93Triassic_extinction_event
) occurred. It is thought that this Hothouse state was triggered by a massive eruption at the [Siberian Traps](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_Traps
), which released enormous amounts of CO2 and other nasty compounds onto the surface of the planet. One of the consequences of this was dramatically slowed ocean circulation in a haline mode. A haline mode "generates warm saline bottom water that heats the ocean" (166), which transfers heat from the equator to the poles. This is in contrast to our present cycle, where deep ocean currents transport cold water to low latitudes, creating a gradient of heat and overall cooler oceans worldwide.
In the Hothouse state, cyclones, which are restricted to about 40 degrees of latitude N or S in our current climatic regime, may traverse the entire globe (90N and 90S) thanks to worldwide elevated ocean temperatures. They would also create a positive feedback situation:
> As storms reached to higher latitudes, they would help deliver more heat to those regions. That would, in turn, further warm higher latitude surface waters, making it more likely that subsequent storms would have an ever-greater poleward reach. Polar storms would also lead to increased polar cloudiness, which would impede surface heat radiation to space, thus warming the poles even more.
Magntitude of storms would increase. Modern cyclones are limited in their size by colder, deeper waters. The bases of their waves reach the colder deep waters and lose heat and energy. In a warmed ocean, this restraint would no longer exist. Kidder and Worsley specifically say, "the cyclone-magnitude governor would be **completely removed** in a Hothouse..." (emphasis mine). So to answer your third question, no, there are theoretically no limiting factors in a very warm, humid situation. To answer your fourth question, the vast, dry deserts of Pangaea were the most likely stopping zones for these storms, as they would be deprived of moisture in the deserts.
> Kidder, D.L., and Worsley, T.R., 2010, Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), HEATT (Haline Euxinic Acidic Thermal Transgression) episodes, and mass extinctions: Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, v. 295, p.162-191.
My understanding is that there were what are known as hypercanes. These theoretic storms would require an ocean temperature around 120° f and would produce Mach .6 winds. I'm not aware of if they actually happened though during our Pangaea era they likely did hope this helps op.
I guess I'll add in some more info.
Hurricanes need warm water to grow theoretically there is little to no known limit to how powerful they can become just depends on how long they have been at sea and the ocean temperature at that time.
General consensus is a hurricane becomes a hyper cane at Sub 700mbar pressure or around 400mph sustained wind. The conditions for this to happen would be around 120 + ° ocean temps deeper than 100 meters and little to no windsheer or land impact.
Some additional info for everyone the 700 mbar number and 400mph winds are just the scientific community consensus at this point it could be weaker or stronger to be classified as a hypercane i personally would say anything under 800mbar and 300 mph winds would qualify putting needed ocean temp at around 108° f
Edit: on phone autocorrection
Edit 2: a sauce for those interested
Edit 3: sauce for anyone interested in global warming affect on hurricanes and man vs nature global warming.
Edit4: for the rest of the world 50°c is 120°f and 400mph is 640kph sorry I forgot to include you guys