Yes. Here's one example:
It starts at looking from Earth toward Orion. Replace "Earth" with "Alpha Centauri". As you might expect, the sky looks mostly the same, but a few of the nearby stars have moved. For example, Sirius is right next to Betelgeuse, and there is a first magnitude star in Cassiopeia: the Sun.
Also try [Space Engine](http://spaceengine.org/).
I'm not sure if anyone has actually done this, but you can in principle. For all the stars you want to include in your star chart, if you know precisely the distance between that star and our system, and the distance to where you want to center your star chart, you could make this new star chart using ordinary geometry. Of course, practically speaking, distances are not always that easy to get.
Another practical consideration would be the orientation of the star chart. If you were on a planet in, say, the Alpha Centauri system, it is not likely that the ecliptic of your orbit would have the same orientation with respect to the Milky Way as Earth's orientation. But this wouldn't affect the relative location of the stars or the shapes of the new "constellations;" rather, this would affect where they appeared in the sky relative to your new day and night. It would also affect the orientation of the Milky Way on your night sky, relative to your horizon.
How much this star chart would change from Earth's depends on how far away you are going. Almost all of the stars in your chart are close by, relatively speaking - within a few hundred lightyears. So the locations of these stars could change dramatically. There could be a few new stars on your chart, but if you are only going nearby, like Alpha Centauri, probably not many.