Score
Title
285
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
961
AskScience AMA Series: European Southern Observatory announcement concerning groundbreaking observations.
1190
Do hydrogen isotopes affect chemical structure of complex hydrocarbons?
977
How far can a big passenger aircraft (for instance an Airbus A340) glide after catastrophic engin failure?
116
What is happening when a chip goes stale?
82
What is happening when a computer generates a random number? Are all RNG programs created equally? What makes an RNG better or worse?
105
Is there a difference in suicide rates between people who have already had children and those who haven't?
3
How is Mills's constant calculated? How does it relate to the Riemann hypothesis? Why don't we know if it's rational?
20
Why do electrons have a constant mass?
274
Why don’t we use salt water for toilet water? Wouldn’t it save millions of gallons of freshwater?
3
How do we calculate the exhaust speed of ions in a Hall-effect thruster ?
54
If you drop something on a solid, does it ripple like a liquid would except much less noticeably?
2
Are the social behaviors we label under 'group dynamics' universal? In other words, do the subconscious behaviors of a group change between cultures/ethnic lines, or are we all the same in this fundamental respect?
4793
How do audio books, printed books, and videos differ in terms of how our brains retain and process the information?
3
How can we prove that earth is rotating?
11
Why do some trees leaves turn red some yellow and some orange and if a tree is red this year then is it always red or can it be yellow next year?
63
Can there be anything higher than a pH of 14 or lower than a pH of 0?
15
Why are sloths so slow?
4
Why is Ruthenium's electron configuration [Kr] 5s1 4d7?
16
Will sterilisation with gamma rays not make the product radioactive or destroy the product?
6
Human fetal development: When does the uterus start to form?
13
The impact of canals in a city?
1
Why does absence of blood flow cause cell death?
2
Is the low dosage of cosmic background radiation we are constatly exposed to a driver of evolution?
16
How do tree rings form?
11
Can deaf people get tinnitus?
12
Do you burn more calories when cold compared to when you are warm when doing the same activity?
9
Does a flashing LED light use less electricity than a steady light? Would a light on a 1/2 second on/off flash use half the electricity?
1
What factors lead to the Wisconsin glaciation?
7
How do the switching mechanisms in transistors work, and how are they triggered?
9
Concerning the photoelectric effect, if an electron's energy is nearly proportional to the frequency of the incident photons, why don't solar panels work on cloudy days? Doesn't UV light, which is higher energy than visible and infrared, pass through clouds?
0
Why is it that, when traveling in space, the heavier the food is, the more expensive it is to transport? Who pays money to who?
3
Was bacon used as a treatment for dermatobia hominis?
6278
Do you use muscles to open or close your eyes?
8
I know a catalyst works by lowering the activation energy but how does it do that?
2
Risk Factors vs Indicators for Disease - What's the difference?
8
How do we know how much a planet weights/the mass of the planet, without knowing exactly what it is made of?
14
My physics tutor said that we are now able to change the wavelength of an already emitted laser beam. How is this possible?
1
Given low enough temperature and high enough pressure, is everything able to freeze?
3
Why does NaCl always has a Crystal structure when solid ?
3
How does a mirror reflect light?
1
Do light waves affect how sound waves travel or vice versa?
11 DrWYSIWYG There is a lot of bypass surgery that goes on not just the heart. Specifically for the heart the radial artery used to be used but it is being used less and less because the success rate is lower than vein grafts. This is because the diameter of the radial artery is so small that any narrowing (for example at the ends that are sewn into the original artery, or the anastomoses) can cause failure quickly. Veins are generally of larger diameter and have a better latency rate. Another responder to this question mentioned the internal mammary artery being used, which is true but a slightly different scenario. The area that the internal mammary artery serves is really close to the heart and so only one end (the distal or far end) is unhooked from where it is going and plumbed into the coronary artery past the coronary blockage. So the blood flows into the mammary arter as normal but is diverted to the heart. The biggest advantage of veins is that in the body, mostly in the peripheries, eg, arms and legs, there are two sets of veins that run in parallel returning blood to the central veins (in the abdomen or chest). Think of varicose veins in the legs, these are removed surgically and the venous drainage of the leg is not harmed because there is another vein running parallel much deeper in the leg that can do the job (as it has only been doing half the job up to now). So the saphenous vein (mentioned in another reply) is in the leg near the surface and, if in good condition, can be used for a graft (bypass artery) as it is long (to get the best bit) and of large diameter so less chance of blockage. The same is true of the superficial veins in the arm (the one you see on the thumb side of your wrist is the arm equivalent to the saphenous vein in the leg). Arteries are not generally taken as, as a rule, they do not run in parallel like the veins. The radial artery is a sort of exception because the radial artery and the ulnar artery (you can just feel it on the little finger side of your wris just a couple of inches from where you feel the radial artery) join up in the palm of you hand in a kind of arch that forms an inverted ‘U’ shape just before the fingers start. If this arch is intact (and in a minority of people it is not) you can use the radial artery because blood can flow round the arch from the ulnar side to supply the bits you have just ‘cut off the blood supply from’. It is important though to check the arch is intact before surgery, a simple but critical test. One downside to the use of veins is that the have one way valves (which is why blood doesn’t just gather in your legs and which have failed in varicose veins). These valves either need to be disrupted (the chosen solution generally but does damage the inside of the vein which can cause clotting) to prevent the arterial flow in their new location on the heart from being stopped, or the vein needs to be turned around, so the valves are open in the direction you want the blood to flow in the heart. Veins to do have their issues though and can become really thickened and fail amongst many other possibilities. In the long term, the grafted vein responds to the higher pressures and becomes structurally more like an artery. TL:DR; Arteries are used but are being used less and less. Veins are used because quite often the occur in parallel pairs in the leg and arm so one can be taken and used as a graft without harm to the arm or leg. Arteries are much narrower and grafts fail more often. Edit; Typos and clarity (yes, clarity)
1 [deleted] [removed]
10 0 DrWYSIWYG There is a lot of bypass surgery that goes on not just the heart. Specifically for the heart the radial artery used to be used but it is being used less and less because the success rate is lower than vein grafts. This is because the diameter of the radial artery is so small that any narrowing (for example at the ends that are sewn into the original artery, or the anastomoses) can cause failure quickly. Veins are generally of larger diameter and have a better latency rate. Another responder to this question mentioned the internal mammary artery being used, which is true but a slightly different scenario. The area that the internal mammary artery serves is really close to the heart and so only one end (the distal or far end) is unhooked from where it is going and plumbed into the coronary artery past the coronary blockage. So the blood flows into the mammary arter as normal but is diverted to the heart. The biggest advantage of veins is that in the body, mostly in the peripheries, eg, arms and legs, there are two sets of veins that run in parallel returning blood to the central veins (in the abdomen or chest). Think of varicose veins in the legs, these are removed surgically and the venous drainage of the leg is not harmed because there is another vein running parallel much deeper in the leg that can do the job (as it has only been doing half the job up to now). So the saphenous vein (mentioned in another reply) is in the leg near the surface and, if in good condition, can be used for a graft (bypass artery) as it is long (to get the best bit) and of large diameter so less chance of blockage. The same is true of the superficial veins in the arm (the one you see on the thumb side of your wrist is the arm equivalent to the saphenous vein in the leg). Arteries are not generally taken as, as a rule, they do not run in parallel like the veins. The radial artery is a sort of exception because the radial artery and the ulnar artery (you can just feel it on the little finger side of your wris just a couple of inches from where you feel the radial artery) join up in the palm of you hand in a kind of arch that forms an inverted ‘U’ shape just before the fingers start. If this arch is intact (and in a minority of people it is not) you can use the radial artery because blood can flow round the arch from the ulnar side to supply the bits you have just ‘cut off the blood supply from’. It is important though to check the arch is intact before surgery, a simple but critical test. One downside to the use of veins is that the have one way valves (which is why blood doesn’t just gather in your legs and which have failed in varicose veins). These valves either need to be disrupted (the chosen solution generally but does damage the inside of the vein which can cause clotting) to prevent the arterial flow in their new location on the heart from being stopped, or the vein needs to be turned around, so the valves are open in the direction you want the blood to flow in the heart. Veins to do have their issues though and can become really thickened and fail amongst many other possibilities. In the long term, the grafted vein responds to the higher pressures and becomes structurally more like an artery. TL:DR; Arteries are used but are being used less and less. Veins are used because quite often the occur in parallel pairs in the leg and arm so one can be taken and used as a graft without harm to the arm or leg. Arteries are much narrower and grafts fail more often. Edit; Typos and clarity (yes, clarity)
1 0 [deleted] [removed]