Score
Title
437
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
868
I know it takes two weeks for the flu vaccine to be fully effective. I assume effectiveness is zero right before the vaccine is administered, and maximum after two weeks. But is there a graph that shows how effectiveness changes in time?
8616
Why is the Congo River so deep?
37
Why is the separation constant for the radial equation of the Hydrogen atom in the form of L(L+1)?
17
If the capacity of a battery charging another battery drops below that of the receiving battery, will it stop transferring electricity since the electrons will no longer prefer to leave the lower energy "state" of the drained battery?
35
How/why are so many mathematical proofs and theorems contingent on the Riemann hypothesis being true?
7444
Are there any predators that hunt for sport rather than for food?
18
Do they update the voyager software?
20
Does language affect learning and studying?
23
When water does down the drain, why does it always go down the drain in a form of whirlpool.?
1
How did the Russian Woodpecker receiver work?
11
From what I have learnt so far, refrigerators use chlorofluorocarbons for cooling. Do these chlorofluorocarbons run out after some time? If yes how are they replenished?
16
What makes things transparent?
17
What allows certain cars and airplanes to have their own Wifi?
29
What causes the thick mist/fog that I frequently see coming off of mountains in my area?
11
What exactly happens to a person's behavior after a lobotomy?
7
How Bayes rule was used to help with aiming cannons?
3
Is a Colliod a state of matter?
5
Is there a limit to the energy density of batteries?
0
What kind of waves on the Electromagnetic Spectrum do metal detectors use to isolate only metal and no other materials?
7
How do particle accelerators such as the LHC detect particle collision products?
21
Many poisonous and venomous vertebrates get their toxins from toxic arthropods that form part of their diets. Why can't they just form the toxins themselves the same ways their prey do?
194
Why are hail storms so short?
68
If aliens were to look at earth through a telescope from 65 million lightyears away, would they see dinosaurs?
13
Why does fire flicker?
34
What exactly is string theory and how does it work?
10724
What exactly does the cold virus do to me to make me so weak?
8
I understand conduction and radiation as modes of heat transfer, but convection confuses me. Why does fluid moving over an object remove heat from it as opposed to adding heat due to friction?
3
How do marine mammals keep their testes cool?
12
Are initial telomere lengths fairly consistent in mammals? Barring external circumstances, do they decay at the same rate?
2
Is it possible light has a mass?
7
How much does it actually cost to maintain the internet?
14
What happens to the brain as you fall asleep? Are certain proteins released to induce sleep? Is it seen as a voluntary or involuntary action?
9
How do transitors amplify?
17
Why does an animal like the sea otter have a long gestation period (145-325 days) but only have a lifespan of 15 years or so. Is there a relationship between gestation period and lifespan across marine mammals like that/or any other mammal?
9
Which modern encryption standards would be both practical to implement on a large scale using technology from the 1940s and still effectively unbreakable today?
13
What is the significance of a quasar discovered at 690 million years after big bang?
5
Why do we find little animals cute?
5
How do drug companies decide on the form(s) of delivery for a given drug?
2
Why does water not heat up through the friction created by movement (ocean waves/shaking it in a bottle)?
3
Will the "dark" side of the Moon become visible from earth?
4274 Mastermaze Canadian checking in here. **This comment has been updated with better info and links for the sake of clarity, see below for new info** Original Comment: >As far as I can tell from my research into how this affects Canada, there is only one undersea fiber cable linking Canada's internet to the rest of the world that doesnt go through the US first. That link goes to Greenland and reportedly has had frequent issues since it was built due to poor construction. Aside from this Greenland link, all other wired Canadian internet traffic goes through the US first before going to the rest of the world. The US could effectively cut Canada off from the internet if it wanted to. >However, there is a proposal to built a new, modern fiber link through the Canadian arctic that would link London, UK with Tokyo, Japan. This would significantly reduce latency between Western Europe and East Asia while also bypassing the mainland US. It would also provide gigabit internet access to thousands of remote Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic, which could have life changing effects on their economies. **UPDATES** Thanks to /u/RcNorth and /u/markszpak for highlighting [this more detailed map](https://www.submarinecablemap.com/#/submarine-cable/gtt-atlantic) than the ones I based the previous version of this comment on. This more detailed map clearly shows that there are 3 fiber links from Halifax to the UK in addition to a fiber link up to Greenland that I mentioned previously. However as described by /u/SoontobeSam: >As a former network operations technician for a Canadian ISP, this is correct, telegreenland's cable is the only subsea fiber I am aware of that does not enter the US before Canada, our other main access routes are in Toronto and Vancouver, but both connect to the US to access international networks. I can also confirm that their network uptime is mostly ok, but when they do have issues it takes forever to get any progress and dealing with ongoing non outage issues is difficult, also Newfies and Scots have a serious language barrier even though they're both speaking "English". So while my initial remarks regarding the US basically being the gatekeeper for Canada's access to the wider Internet may be more or less correct, I was incorrect in saying that the Greenland fiber link is the ONLY fiber link Canada has to the rest of the world. While the Toronto, Halifax, and Vancouver links /u/SoontobeSam mentioned appear to all go through the US in some way first which technically restricts Canada's direct access through those links. **Arctic Fiber** By popular request here is [the link to the site](http://qexpressnet.com/system/) for the fiber link through the Canadian Arctic that I mentioned previously. The project was formerly known as Arctic Fiber, but has been re-branded as the Quintillion Cable System after the name of the company task with installing the cable. Yes, you read that right, this project has gotten the green light since I last checked up on it (I didn't have time to check on my way to work when I commented originally). They just completed Phase 1 which covers Alaska, and will be starting the Phase 2 to expand through Asia to Tokyo soon. Quintillion has also built a terrestrial link through Alaska and down to the mainland US in order to provide connection to existing connection hubs on the west coast. *UPDATE 2: Just have to highlight these two awesome users comments:* User /u/KrazyTrumpeter05 posted [an awesome comment](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7ez85x/with_all_this_fuss_about_net_neutrality_exactly/dq9ir7v/) with more info about Canadian Fiber connections, and also linked to [this 293 report](http://subtelforum.com/products/submarine-cable-almanac/) they claim to have played a major role in writing about Internet Fiber connections around the world. Thanks for the fascinating info! User /u/Fochang1 posted [this fascinating comment](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7ez85x/with_all_this_fuss_about_net_neutrality_exactly/dq9ic13/) about how South American/Caribbean nations have a similar issue with the US acting as their Internet gatekeepers. They linked to [this insane Internet Exchange Point](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/NAP_of_the_Americas) in Miami that routes most of South/Central America's internet traffic. Thanks for sharing this incredible perspective that Canadians like myself would otherwise be oblivious to! **Some thoughts on the impact of Arctic Fiber** The fact that this project is actually being built is incredible, because it will mean a huge boost in connection for remote arctic communities that open up massive new economic and information exchange opportunities to these historically very isolated regions. I can't wait to see what the Inuit peoples of Canada's arctic will do with this new link to the outside world. Reconciliation between Canada's indigenous and non-indigenous peoples has become a major focus for Canada in recent years, with the Canadian government [set to fully implement into law](http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/wilson-raybould-backs-undrip-bill-1.4412037) a 2007 [UN declaration on the rights of Indigenous peoples](https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples.html). There is a long way to go for reconciliation, and it has been a very rocky road so far, but I hope that this new Fiber link will open up new ways for a large portion of Canada's indigenous population to showcase their own culture to the world and make new economic opportunities for their communities in the digital marketplace. If you for some reason read through everything to this point, thanks for reading :)
2410 [deleted] [removed]
1201 D_Welch I would like to know what the ISPs are thinking of Elon Musk's (and others) notion of covering the planet with satellite based service, and how would they compete with that? It seems inevitable that this is in some form the future of internet. And then as an aside, will the competition be companies throwing up MORE satellites?
251 ckayfish I’m unclear if this FCC “ruling” will only allow them to throttle connections to their subscribers down stream. This post infers that services hosted in US data centres can have their UP connections throttled no matter where the user is. Nothing surprises me about what is happening there, but this would really be pushing it. If US data centres are affected like this, Canadian & Mexican data centres are about to see a lot of new business. Edit: Make more readable.
337 [deleted] [removed]
114 [deleted] [removed]
80 LakeSuperiorIsMyPond I don't see how any of it would have any impact on anyone outside the u.s. If you're in Canada or elsewhere, and you're accessing a service in California, the Layer3 provider isn't going to be throttled at all. The throttling has to happen ONLY at the client level inside the U.S. at the modem for the service to be able to be upgraded as a sellable package, therefore if your ISP is Comcast, their Network HAS to stay fast all the time so they can market those individual services to paying customers selectively.
139 [deleted] [removed]
4275 0 Mastermaze Canadian checking in here. **This comment has been updated with better info and links for the sake of clarity, see below for new info** Original Comment: >As far as I can tell from my research into how this affects Canada, there is only one undersea fiber cable linking Canada's internet to the rest of the world that doesnt go through the US first. That link goes to Greenland and reportedly has had frequent issues since it was built due to poor construction. Aside from this Greenland link, all other wired Canadian internet traffic goes through the US first before going to the rest of the world. The US could effectively cut Canada off from the internet if it wanted to. >However, there is a proposal to built a new, modern fiber link through the Canadian arctic that would link London, UK with Tokyo, Japan. This would significantly reduce latency between Western Europe and East Asia while also bypassing the mainland US. It would also provide gigabit internet access to thousands of remote Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic, which could have life changing effects on their economies. **UPDATES** Thanks to /u/RcNorth and /u/markszpak for highlighting [this more detailed map](https://www.submarinecablemap.com/#/submarine-cable/gtt-atlantic) than the ones I based the previous version of this comment on. This more detailed map clearly shows that there are 3 fiber links from Halifax to the UK in addition to a fiber link up to Greenland that I mentioned previously. However as described by /u/SoontobeSam: >As a former network operations technician for a Canadian ISP, this is correct, telegreenland's cable is the only subsea fiber I am aware of that does not enter the US before Canada, our other main access routes are in Toronto and Vancouver, but both connect to the US to access international networks. I can also confirm that their network uptime is mostly ok, but when they do have issues it takes forever to get any progress and dealing with ongoing non outage issues is difficult, also Newfies and Scots have a serious language barrier even though they're both speaking "English". So while my initial remarks regarding the US basically being the gatekeeper for Canada's access to the wider Internet may be more or less correct, I was incorrect in saying that the Greenland fiber link is the ONLY fiber link Canada has to the rest of the world. While the Toronto, Halifax, and Vancouver links /u/SoontobeSam mentioned appear to all go through the US in some way first which technically restricts Canada's direct access through those links. **Arctic Fiber** By popular request here is [the link to the site](http://qexpressnet.com/system/) for the fiber link through the Canadian Arctic that I mentioned previously. The project was formerly known as Arctic Fiber, but has been re-branded as the Quintillion Cable System after the name of the company task with installing the cable. Yes, you read that right, this project has gotten the green light since I last checked up on it (I didn't have time to check on my way to work when I commented originally). They just completed Phase 1 which covers Alaska, and will be starting the Phase 2 to expand through Asia to Tokyo soon. Quintillion has also built a terrestrial link through Alaska and down to the mainland US in order to provide connection to existing connection hubs on the west coast. *UPDATE 2: Just have to highlight these two awesome users comments:* User /u/KrazyTrumpeter05 posted [an awesome comment](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7ez85x/with_all_this_fuss_about_net_neutrality_exactly/dq9ir7v/) with more info about Canadian Fiber connections, and also linked to [this 293 report](http://subtelforum.com/products/submarine-cable-almanac/) they claim to have played a major role in writing about Internet Fiber connections around the world. Thanks for the fascinating info! User /u/Fochang1 posted [this fascinating comment](https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/7ez85x/with_all_this_fuss_about_net_neutrality_exactly/dq9ic13/) about how South American/Caribbean nations have a similar issue with the US acting as their Internet gatekeepers. They linked to [this insane Internet Exchange Point](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/NAP_of_the_Americas) in Miami that routes most of South/Central America's internet traffic. Thanks for sharing this incredible perspective that Canadians like myself would otherwise be oblivious to! **Some thoughts on the impact of Arctic Fiber** The fact that this project is actually being built is incredible, because it will mean a huge boost in connection for remote arctic communities that open up massive new economic and information exchange opportunities to these historically very isolated regions. I can't wait to see what the Inuit peoples of Canada's arctic will do with this new link to the outside world. Reconciliation between Canada's indigenous and non-indigenous peoples has become a major focus for Canada in recent years, with the Canadian government [set to fully implement into law](http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/wilson-raybould-backs-undrip-bill-1.4412037) a 2007 [UN declaration on the rights of Indigenous peoples](https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples.html). There is a long way to go for reconciliation, and it has been a very rocky road so far, but I hope that this new Fiber link will open up new ways for a large portion of Canada's indigenous population to showcase their own culture to the world and make new economic opportunities for their communities in the digital marketplace. If you for some reason read through everything to this point, thanks for reading :)
2416 0 [deleted] [removed]
1203 0 D_Welch I would like to know what the ISPs are thinking of Elon Musk's (and others) notion of covering the planet with satellite based service, and how would they compete with that? It seems inevitable that this is in some form the future of internet. And then as an aside, will the competition be companies throwing up MORE satellites?
249 0 ckayfish I’m unclear if this FCC “ruling” will only allow them to throttle connections to their subscribers down stream. This post infers that services hosted in US data centres can have their UP connections throttled no matter where the user is. Nothing surprises me about what is happening there, but this would really be pushing it. If US data centres are affected like this, Canadian & Mexican data centres are about to see a lot of new business. Edit: Make more readable.
337 0 [deleted] [removed]
112 0 [deleted] [removed]
79 0 LakeSuperiorIsMyPond I don't see how any of it would have any impact on anyone outside the u.s. If you're in Canada or elsewhere, and you're accessing a service in California, the Layer3 provider isn't going to be throttled at all. The throttling has to happen ONLY at the client level inside the U.S. at the modem for the service to be able to be upgraded as a sellable package, therefore if your ISP is Comcast, their Network HAS to stay fast all the time so they can market those individual services to paying customers selectively.
141 0 [deleted] [removed]