Score
Title
437
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
868
I know it takes two weeks for the flu vaccine to be fully effective. I assume effectiveness is zero right before the vaccine is administered, and maximum after two weeks. But is there a graph that shows how effectiveness changes in time?
8616
Why is the Congo River so deep?
37
Why is the separation constant for the radial equation of the Hydrogen atom in the form of L(L+1)?
17
If the capacity of a battery charging another battery drops below that of the receiving battery, will it stop transferring electricity since the electrons will no longer prefer to leave the lower energy "state" of the drained battery?
35
How/why are so many mathematical proofs and theorems contingent on the Riemann hypothesis being true?
7444
Are there any predators that hunt for sport rather than for food?
18
Do they update the voyager software?
20
Does language affect learning and studying?
23
When water does down the drain, why does it always go down the drain in a form of whirlpool.?
1
How did the Russian Woodpecker receiver work?
11
From what I have learnt so far, refrigerators use chlorofluorocarbons for cooling. Do these chlorofluorocarbons run out after some time? If yes how are they replenished?
16
What makes things transparent?
17
What allows certain cars and airplanes to have their own Wifi?
29
What causes the thick mist/fog that I frequently see coming off of mountains in my area?
11
What exactly happens to a person's behavior after a lobotomy?
7
How Bayes rule was used to help with aiming cannons?
3
Is a Colliod a state of matter?
5
Is there a limit to the energy density of batteries?
0
What kind of waves on the Electromagnetic Spectrum do metal detectors use to isolate only metal and no other materials?
7
How do particle accelerators such as the LHC detect particle collision products?
21
Many poisonous and venomous vertebrates get their toxins from toxic arthropods that form part of their diets. Why can't they just form the toxins themselves the same ways their prey do?
194
Why are hail storms so short?
68
If aliens were to look at earth through a telescope from 65 million lightyears away, would they see dinosaurs?
13
Why does fire flicker?
34
What exactly is string theory and how does it work?
10724
What exactly does the cold virus do to me to make me so weak?
8
I understand conduction and radiation as modes of heat transfer, but convection confuses me. Why does fluid moving over an object remove heat from it as opposed to adding heat due to friction?
3
How do marine mammals keep their testes cool?
12
Are initial telomere lengths fairly consistent in mammals? Barring external circumstances, do they decay at the same rate?
2
Is it possible light has a mass?
7
How much does it actually cost to maintain the internet?
14
What happens to the brain as you fall asleep? Are certain proteins released to induce sleep? Is it seen as a voluntary or involuntary action?
9
How do transitors amplify?
17
Why does an animal like the sea otter have a long gestation period (145-325 days) but only have a lifespan of 15 years or so. Is there a relationship between gestation period and lifespan across marine mammals like that/or any other mammal?
9
Which modern encryption standards would be both practical to implement on a large scale using technology from the 1940s and still effectively unbreakable today?
13
What is the significance of a quasar discovered at 690 million years after big bang?
5
Why do we find little animals cute?
5
How do drug companies decide on the form(s) of delivery for a given drug?
2
Why does water not heat up through the friction created by movement (ocean waves/shaking it in a bottle)?
3
Will the "dark" side of the Moon become visible from earth?
5474 SelfRefMeta "Certain highly organized groups of cells known as imaginal discs survive the digestive process. Before hatching, when a caterpillar is still developing inside its egg, it grows an imaginal disc for each of the adult body parts it will need as a mature butterfly or moth—discs for its eyes, for its wings, its legs and so on. In some species, these imaginal discs remain dormant throughout the caterpillar's life; in other species, the discs begin to take the shape of adult body parts even before the caterpillar forms a chrysalis or cocoon. Some caterpillars walk around with tiny rudimentary wings tucked inside their bodies, though you would never know it by looking at them." https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/caterpillar-butterfly-metamorphosis-explainer/ There's a great radiolab show where they address this: http://www.radiolab.org/story/goo-and-you/
387 mabolle By the way, "cocoon" is probably not the word you're looking for. [This is a pupa](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Nymphalidae_-_Danaus_plexippus_Chrysalis.JPG) (also known as a chrysalis). It's the stage a holometabolous insect passes through before adulthood. So it's not a shell or container or anything; it *is* the insect. That green stuff is the skin of the animal. For comparison, [here's a ladybug pupa](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Multicolored_Asian_Lady_Beetle_Pupa_%2814401873284%29.jpg), and [these are bee pupae](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Drohnenpuppen_79d.jpg). [These are cocoons](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/Cocoon_-_Bombyx_mori_-_Kolkata_2013-06-04_8545.JPG/1280px-Cocoon_-_Bombyx_mori_-_Kolkata_2013-06-04_8545.JPG). As you can see, they're made of silk, which is produced glands on the caterpillar's face. Some insects (but rarely butterflies) make cocoons before pupating. If you cut open a cocoon, you'll usually find a pupa inside it.
78 JaeHoon_Cho This has been a very informational thread—either of things I looked up and promptly forgot or new things entirely. Another question to add to the thread: if during the liquified state of pupation, one were to inject a needle and remove some of the “thing”, come adulthood (if it survived to that stage), we’d see a butterfly with missing parts rather than a smaller adult, correct? (That’s my understanding of the imaginal discs /u/SelfRefMeta mentions)
48 Kimber85 I have a question related to this, I hope it's okay for me to ask. We had over one hundred chrysalis (chrysali?, chrysalises?) on our house this year, and most of them left what looks like a blood stain that came out the bottom. Is that just normal or did something go wrong and the butterflies didn't make it? We saw several that came out deformed or fell out of the chrysalis onto the ground and never flew away. Also, if anyone knows how to remove the stain the butterflies left, I'd appreciate it. Our house looks like a murder scene.
5482 0 SelfRefMeta "Certain highly organized groups of cells known as imaginal discs survive the digestive process. Before hatching, when a caterpillar is still developing inside its egg, it grows an imaginal disc for each of the adult body parts it will need as a mature butterfly or moth—discs for its eyes, for its wings, its legs and so on. In some species, these imaginal discs remain dormant throughout the caterpillar's life; in other species, the discs begin to take the shape of adult body parts even before the caterpillar forms a chrysalis or cocoon. Some caterpillars walk around with tiny rudimentary wings tucked inside their bodies, though you would never know it by looking at them." https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/caterpillar-butterfly-metamorphosis-explainer/ There's a great radiolab show where they address this: http://www.radiolab.org/story/goo-and-you/
390 0 mabolle By the way, "cocoon" is probably not the word you're looking for. [This is a pupa](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Nymphalidae_-_Danaus_plexippus_Chrysalis.JPG) (also known as a chrysalis). It's the stage a holometabolous insect passes through before adulthood. So it's not a shell or container or anything; it *is* the insect. That green stuff is the skin of the animal. For comparison, [here's a ladybug pupa](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Multicolored_Asian_Lady_Beetle_Pupa_%2814401873284%29.jpg), and [these are bee pupae](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Drohnenpuppen_79d.jpg). [These are cocoons](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a2/Cocoon_-_Bombyx_mori_-_Kolkata_2013-06-04_8545.JPG/1280px-Cocoon_-_Bombyx_mori_-_Kolkata_2013-06-04_8545.JPG). As you can see, they're made of silk, which is produced glands on the caterpillar's face. Some insects (but rarely butterflies) make cocoons before pupating. If you cut open a cocoon, you'll usually find a pupa inside it.
78 0 JaeHoon_Cho This has been a very informational thread—either of things I looked up and promptly forgot or new things entirely. Another question to add to the thread: if during the liquified state of pupation, one were to inject a needle and remove some of the “thing”, come adulthood (if it survived to that stage), we’d see a butterfly with missing parts rather than a smaller adult, correct? (That’s my understanding of the imaginal discs /u/SelfRefMeta mentions)
48 0 Kimber85 I have a question related to this, I hope it's okay for me to ask. We had over one hundred chrysalis (chrysali?, chrysalises?) on our house this year, and most of them left what looks like a blood stain that came out the bottom. Is that just normal or did something go wrong and the butterflies didn't make it? We saw several that came out deformed or fell out of the chrysalis onto the ground and never flew away. Also, if anyone knows how to remove the stain the butterflies left, I'd appreciate it. Our house looks like a murder scene.