Score
Title
555
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
425
AskScience AMA Series: I am a squid biologist, AMA!
5264
At what point is a particle too small to cast a shadow?
81
How do most wild animals die?
50
What do scientists mean when they say "We only know what makes up 5% of the Universe"? What makes up the other 95% of the Universe and how come we don't know what it is ?
4043
How do our bodies build a tolerance to alcohol?
47
Is there a way to measure sharpness - like a scale of sharpness? Thank you
327
Does the temperature of air effect the distance sound can travel?
12
What prevents people in the United States from contacting Malaria from mosquito bites?
13
When I drop an insect (I.e an ant) from a large height (relative - from my chest to the ground), does it “hurt” as bad as it would for us?
9
Why does tungsten (and the elements around it) have a high melting point?
6449
Why is the Liver one of the only organs that grows back when most of it is removed?
3
If electrons move in a copper wire not by each electron travelling all the way, but by bumping into the one ahead and pushing it forward, how can electricity travel faster than the speed of sound of copper?
279
Since the W and Z bosons that mediate the weak force are not massless, does that mean that the weak force does not propagate at light speed?
7
What is the Furry hypothesis, in relation to quantum superposition, and why is it incorrect?
12
How is a breathalyzer a useful metric when testing blood alcohol content?
10
What is the aspect ratio of a nuclear reactor and why does it matter?
2
Can gases/liquids be contained within a magnetic field?
7
Is there a limit to the number of photons a human iris/brain can capture and process?
122
Are there any computer animations of what a supernova would actually look like in real life? What would it look like?
8
Why will your eyes hurt looking at the sun, but not at a lightning strike?
1
Why does diabetes causes kidney damage?
5
Does the age of sperm affect the offspring it creates?
3
Do extroverts comment more often than introverts on Reddit?
159
Why is the molten salt fueled reactor always associated with thorium? Is thorium more suited for MSFRs than uranium?
3
Why are converging-diverging nozzles preferred over converging only nozzles?
0
Why do solid objects exist?
6
Since Earth is slightly flat at the poles and slightly wider at the equator, are there places on Earth where gravity's force is not perfectly downwards?
29
Why would all the land mass be in on one part of the earth (Pangaea) when it first formed?
4
Why are OLED pixels different from LCD pixels?
9033
How do surgeons avoid air bubbles in the bloodstreams after an organ transplant?
3
Other than causing obesity, what are the health risks to consuming sugar?
0
Do birds eat gravel thinking it is food?
2
What's the link between Kirchhoffs law of radiation and Planck's law?
1
How do certain parts of my body know when to stop hair growing?
4
What is quantum mechanical tunneling in relation to field ionization?
10
How does a cell "know" when to produce a protein?
0
Why is the Moon getting farther away from Earth?
3
Can (polar) animals get Photokeratitis/'snow blindness'?
160
What was the diet of early man before the discovery of fire and how soon after did man start "cooking"?
0
How does brain know if some part of our body is being touched without looking at it?
3
Are the cells comprising the liver homogeneous across the entire organ, or are there functional differences from section to section?
13134 [deleted] [removed]
1379 babinatable Specifically, the cause of the crummy feeling is due to your innate immune system cells, like macrophages, detecting foreign materials and releasing cytokines to call attention from more and more immune cells (this starts the inflammation response). Some types of cytokines are specifically responsible for triggering the brain to make you sleepy, sore, and have a fever. Here's a great little video with a little more detail: https://youtu.be/gVdY9KXF_Sg
1420 [deleted] [removed]
155 Kegnaught The fatigue is likely caused by fever. In response to an infection with a cold-causing virus, your immune cells begin to secrete cytokines that cause both localized inflammation and a full-fledged immune response from the rest of the body. Chemokines like Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are considered major endogenous (meaning they are produced by your own body) pyrogens (molecules that cause fever). In addition, other endogenous molecules are also produced that aid in inducing a fever. IL-1 and IL-6 can both activate the [arachidonic acid pathway](http://www.cvphysiology.com/Blood%20Flow/BF013), which ends in the synthesis of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 is a major regulator of the febrile response and acts on the hypothalamus and other areas of the brain, which induces shivering to create heat, constriction of blood vessels to prevent heat loss, and can also cause the release of adrenaline. The virus itself can cause tissue damage, which further exacerbates inflammation in the area of the infection. Not all viruses that cause colds replicate through the same mechanism: some are lytic and others are lysogenic. Lytic viruses like rhinoviruses rupture cells once the infected cell reaches its burst size. The insides of the cell can trigger inflammatory signals from neighboring cells as well, further exacerbating the immune response. Lysogenic viruses such as coronaviruses tend to bud or undergo exocytosis from cells, and the immune response to these is somewhat dampened by the lack of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that would trigger inflammation from nearby cells. Unfortunately, from what I can find it's not totally clear what it is about fever or inflammation that causes lethargy, though I would speculate it likely has to do with the modulation of the [autonomic nervous system](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomic_nervous_system) by prostaglandins.
138 [deleted] [removed]
13132 0 [deleted] [removed]
1372 0 babinatable Specifically, the cause of the crummy feeling is due to your innate immune system cells, like macrophages, detecting foreign materials and releasing cytokines to call attention from more and more immune cells (this starts the inflammation response). Some types of cytokines are specifically responsible for triggering the brain to make you sleepy, sore, and have a fever. Here's a great little video with a little more detail: https://youtu.be/gVdY9KXF_Sg
1423 0 [deleted] [removed]
155 0 Kegnaught The fatigue is likely caused by fever. In response to an infection with a cold-causing virus, your immune cells begin to secrete cytokines that cause both localized inflammation and a full-fledged immune response from the rest of the body. Chemokines like Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are considered major endogenous (meaning they are produced by your own body) pyrogens (molecules that cause fever). In addition, other endogenous molecules are also produced that aid in inducing a fever. IL-1 and IL-6 can both activate the [arachidonic acid pathway](http://www.cvphysiology.com/Blood%20Flow/BF013), which ends in the synthesis of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 is a major regulator of the febrile response and acts on the hypothalamus and other areas of the brain, which induces shivering to create heat, constriction of blood vessels to prevent heat loss, and can also cause the release of adrenaline. The virus itself can cause tissue damage, which further exacerbates inflammation in the area of the infection. Not all viruses that cause colds replicate through the same mechanism: some are lytic and others are lysogenic. Lytic viruses like rhinoviruses rupture cells once the infected cell reaches its burst size. The insides of the cell can trigger inflammatory signals from neighboring cells as well, further exacerbating the immune response. Lysogenic viruses such as coronaviruses tend to bud or undergo exocytosis from cells, and the immune response to these is somewhat dampened by the lack of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that would trigger inflammation from nearby cells. Unfortunately, from what I can find it's not totally clear what it is about fever or inflammation that causes lethargy, though I would speculate it likely has to do with the modulation of the [autonomic nervous system](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomic_nervous_system) by prostaglandins.
138 0 [deleted] [removed]