Score
Title
547
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
414
AskScience AMA Series: I am a squid biologist, AMA!
2913
How do surgeons avoid air bubbles in the bloodstreams after an organ transplant?
6247
Why do joints ache so much when you get the cold/flu?
36
Are all massless particles their own antiparticles?
19
What do prion proteins naturally do in the brain/body?
780
What is the relationship between the rate of change of a function and differentiation?
502
If the energy of photons is continuous, and electron's energy levels around an atom are discreet, then how can you ever have a photon that has the exact energy to be absorbed by an electron?
32
How does coding physically work? How does a computer, made up of inanimate parts, understand what to do based on a made up language?
165
Why do "Y" chromosomes only have 3 chromatids?
9
Does the human body make any noticeable 'microadjustments' when exposed to a particular climate for a length of time?
7
Why do sperm cells have a large nucleus if they only carry half the genetic material?
8
What is thought to happen to quarks during the big rip?
8
How we know certain animals can detect specific scents from X distance away? How are we measuring and determining that?
11068
How do scientists studying antimatter MAKE the antimatter they study if all their tools are composed of regular matter?
3
Are there problems in computer science that no algorithm can solve for all inputs?
1
How do spacelike separated measurements of entangled particles work?
5
Does Urine Affect Plant Transpiration?
1
How do you actually use Density Functional Theory?
205
Can an unvaried diet cause the human body to learn to digest a certain (type of) food faster?
6
Is there a correlation between peoples hearing range and the type of music they like?
60
Why do large metal beams or trusses sometimes have tiny connections/joints?
1
How do you measure forces between individual atoms and molecules?
43
Does Supersymmetry include antimatter?
1
Why do some photos of the heavens show stars radiating light in a 'cross' shape instead of evenly in a circle?
3
I've recently been told that cloning different types of animals varies in difficulty. Is this true and if so what the key challenges in cloning different organisms?
1
Why does Nima Arkani-Hamed say we need an infinitely large apparatus to get rid of quantum uncertainty in measurements?
1
[Engineering] How do modern cars calculate fuel economy?
1
What exactly is the Doppler effect?
6
Why don’t everyday movements cause sub-concussive impacts?
3
Does our mother tongue affect our face features in any way?
1
What is physically different about the brain of someone with an exceptional memory?
29
Why is the waste produced in a thorium fuel cycle need storage for only 300 years instead of thousands of years for uranium fuel cycle, even though U233 from Th232 had mostly similar fission products as U235?
40
How did Scott and Amundsen KNOW when they reached the south pole (100 years ago)?
6
How does convection of heat work in space?
3
[Physics] Has there been significant research relating to anti-matter weaponry?
1
How does a paraconformity originate?
7
Can non ear neurons detect sounds?
990
If 2 black holes were close enough that their event horizons were overlapping, could things in that overlapped region escape those black holes?
4
Is it possible for gravity waves to have a particle nature? If so, what would this particle be like? If not, what sets gravitational waves apart from light and matter, which have particle wave duality?
6
Why is this year's influenza outbreak so much deadlier than previous years?
0
What are fingerprints made of ?
224 nogreatshakes Yes, they are constantly vibrating, but are a lot more constrained than in fluids. For a real “solid” solid like a metal or crystalline substance the atoms or molecules have to keep their lattice structure, so there isn’t free movement throughout the solid, but they are constantly oscillating about their average position. If this weren’t the case, solids would be at absolute zero all the time.
20 -DreamMaster As mentioned before, particles in a solid are in fact moving. You can "observe" that with gauge blocks. The faces of these blocks are so flat, that they stick together if you stick them together in a certain way. ([Here](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lOOl3VxOtE) is a nice video about that). However, if you "stick" two of those together and leave them for a few weeks/month/years (depends on the temperature) they actually weld together. Since a good set of gauge blocks is expensive as hell, be sure to always put them away separated from each other. EDIT: formatting and typo
10 bobide Yes, diffusion occurs in solids as well. Atoms can move through the crystalline lattice of a solid material through a number of different routes. The atoms can move through interstitial or substitutional mechanisms for example.
4 YoungJaaron Particles must always move, no matter what the conditions due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which states one may not know the exact velocity and position of a particle. The more we know about one value, the less we know about the other. This means that no particle may be completely motionless, as we would then know the position and the velocity simultaneously. Even at absolute zero, particles still move, even if it's the slightest movement. I believe Feynman called it the "quantum jitters," but the technical name for this phenomenon is "zero point motion." So yes, particles must move in a solid. To answer your second question, atoms are so attracted to each other that they vibrate, but don't move past each other. Atoms in liquids move much more freely amongst each other.
2 radicallyhip Basically the reason why substances in gaseous and liquid states flow and move around is they have enough kinetic energy (per particle) to resist the inter-particular forces (dipole bonding, hydrogen bonding etc). When they have this amount of kinetic energy behind them, if they bump into another particle, the momentum continues to carry them along and they overcome the sticky bonding forces. However, as we cool a gas down, and it condenses into a liquid, we see particles having more interactions; their volume decreases because the particles have less energy, and they interact with the attractive forces of other particles more. Not enough to make them stick, but enough to contain them in a definite volume at a constant pressure. They still flow and hold the shape of their container but they do not expand to fit the whole thing. If we continue to cool this substance below the fusion/freezing point, the kinetic energy of the particles ceases to carry enough momentum to overcome the sticking forces of other particles. H-bonding, ionic crystallization or induced dipole-dipole interactions, etc all occur at this point, and the substance becomes rigid - the particles are more strongly attracted to one another and the particles are no longer free to move about. They become stuck in place as interactions occur between more and more particles. They still vibrate in place, but do not have enough energy to break free from those bonds formed within their network of bonds.
1 Puteh The movements of atomic nuclei in solids can be measured to quite high precision using techniques such as X-ray absorption fine structure. These techniques determine the spatial distribution of internuclear distances between pairs of atoms. A typical deviation from the mean separation of ca. 0.3 nm would be 0.01 nm at room temperature. Reference (not for the fainthearted): https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/de39/973536b1c4120fccb6b2892b7d14fddbd7c0.pdf
222 0 nogreatshakes Yes, they are constantly vibrating, but are a lot more constrained than in fluids. For a real “solid” solid like a metal or crystalline substance the atoms or molecules have to keep their lattice structure, so there isn’t free movement throughout the solid, but they are constantly oscillating about their average position. If this weren’t the case, solids would be at absolute zero all the time.
21 0 -DreamMaster As mentioned before, particles in a solid are in fact moving. You can "observe" that with gauge blocks. The faces of these blocks are so flat, that they stick together if you stick them together in a certain way. ([Here](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lOOl3VxOtE) is a nice video about that). However, if you "stick" two of those together and leave them for a few weeks/month/years (depends on the temperature) they actually weld together. Since a good set of gauge blocks is expensive as hell, be sure to always put them away separated from each other. EDIT: formatting and typo
10 0 bobide Yes, diffusion occurs in solids as well. Atoms can move through the crystalline lattice of a solid material through a number of different routes. The atoms can move through interstitial or substitutional mechanisms for example.
6 0 YoungJaaron Particles must always move, no matter what the conditions due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which states one may not know the exact velocity and position of a particle. The more we know about one value, the less we know about the other. This means that no particle may be completely motionless, as we would then know the position and the velocity simultaneously. Even at absolute zero, particles still move, even if it's the slightest movement. I believe Feynman called it the "quantum jitters," but the technical name for this phenomenon is "zero point motion." So yes, particles must move in a solid. To answer your second question, atoms are so attracted to each other that they vibrate, but don't move past each other. Atoms in liquids move much more freely amongst each other.
2 0 radicallyhip Basically the reason why substances in gaseous and liquid states flow and move around is they have enough kinetic energy (per particle) to resist the inter-particular forces (dipole bonding, hydrogen bonding etc). When they have this amount of kinetic energy behind them, if they bump into another particle, the momentum continues to carry them along and they overcome the sticky bonding forces. However, as we cool a gas down, and it condenses into a liquid, we see particles having more interactions; their volume decreases because the particles have less energy, and they interact with the attractive forces of other particles more. Not enough to make them stick, but enough to contain them in a definite volume at a constant pressure. They still flow and hold the shape of their container but they do not expand to fit the whole thing. If we continue to cool this substance below the fusion/freezing point, the kinetic energy of the particles ceases to carry enough momentum to overcome the sticking forces of other particles. H-bonding, ionic crystallization or induced dipole-dipole interactions, etc all occur at this point, and the substance becomes rigid - the particles are more strongly attracted to one another and the particles are no longer free to move about. They become stuck in place as interactions occur between more and more particles. They still vibrate in place, but do not have enough energy to break free from those bonds formed within their network of bonds.
1 0 Puteh The movements of atomic nuclei in solids can be measured to quite high precision using techniques such as X-ray absorption fine structure. These techniques determine the spatial distribution of internuclear distances between pairs of atoms. A typical deviation from the mean separation of ca. 0.3 nm would be 0.01 nm at room temperature. Reference (not for the fainthearted): https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/de39/973536b1c4120fccb6b2892b7d14fddbd7c0.pdf