Score
Title
547
AskScience Panel of Scientists XVII
414
AskScience AMA Series: I am a squid biologist, AMA!
2913
How do surgeons avoid air bubbles in the bloodstreams after an organ transplant?
6247
Why do joints ache so much when you get the cold/flu?
36
Are all massless particles their own antiparticles?
19
What do prion proteins naturally do in the brain/body?
780
What is the relationship between the rate of change of a function and differentiation?
502
If the energy of photons is continuous, and electron's energy levels around an atom are discreet, then how can you ever have a photon that has the exact energy to be absorbed by an electron?
32
How does coding physically work? How does a computer, made up of inanimate parts, understand what to do based on a made up language?
165
Why do "Y" chromosomes only have 3 chromatids?
9
Does the human body make any noticeable 'microadjustments' when exposed to a particular climate for a length of time?
7
Why do sperm cells have a large nucleus if they only carry half the genetic material?
8
What is thought to happen to quarks during the big rip?
8
How we know certain animals can detect specific scents from X distance away? How are we measuring and determining that?
11068
How do scientists studying antimatter MAKE the antimatter they study if all their tools are composed of regular matter?
3
Are there problems in computer science that no algorithm can solve for all inputs?
1
How do spacelike separated measurements of entangled particles work?
5
Does Urine Affect Plant Transpiration?
1
How do you actually use Density Functional Theory?
205
Can an unvaried diet cause the human body to learn to digest a certain (type of) food faster?
6
Is there a correlation between peoples hearing range and the type of music they like?
60
Why do large metal beams or trusses sometimes have tiny connections/joints?
1
How do you measure forces between individual atoms and molecules?
43
Does Supersymmetry include antimatter?
1
Why do some photos of the heavens show stars radiating light in a 'cross' shape instead of evenly in a circle?
3
I've recently been told that cloning different types of animals varies in difficulty. Is this true and if so what the key challenges in cloning different organisms?
1
Why does Nima Arkani-Hamed say we need an infinitely large apparatus to get rid of quantum uncertainty in measurements?
1
[Engineering] How do modern cars calculate fuel economy?
1
What exactly is the Doppler effect?
6
Why don’t everyday movements cause sub-concussive impacts?
3
Does our mother tongue affect our face features in any way?
1
What is physically different about the brain of someone with an exceptional memory?
29
Why is the waste produced in a thorium fuel cycle need storage for only 300 years instead of thousands of years for uranium fuel cycle, even though U233 from Th232 had mostly similar fission products as U235?
40
How did Scott and Amundsen KNOW when they reached the south pole (100 years ago)?
6
How does convection of heat work in space?
3
[Physics] Has there been significant research relating to anti-matter weaponry?
1
How does a paraconformity originate?
7
Can non ear neurons detect sounds?
990
If 2 black holes were close enough that their event horizons were overlapping, could things in that overlapped region escape those black holes?
4
Is it possible for gravity waves to have a particle nature? If so, what would this particle be like? If not, what sets gravitational waves apart from light and matter, which have particle wave duality?
6
Why is this year's influenza outbreak so much deadlier than previous years?
0
What are fingerprints made of ?
2 OhItsPreston Well, it depends on how in depth of an answer you're looking for. In general, the human brain is strongly wired to look for "reward", typically through activation of the dopamine pathway. These are dopamine (DA) producing neurons that extend from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to other areas of the brain like the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These DA pathways are generally activated by all sorts of "rewarding" stimuli that make you want them. Imagine anything that you anticipate, and that anticipation likely comes from DA. This could be food, sex, playing a videogame you've been looking forward to, the thought of a break from doing work, anything. It's a huge motivator and deeply ingrained in human biology. Almost all addictive drugs increase activity of the DA pathway, whether by increasing DA production, decreasing DA degradation, or lots of other mechanisms. This leads to individuals strongly seeking the source of the reward (the drug).
5 lunchlady55 Almost all addictive drugs act on the brain’s natural reward circuitry, changing the way you feel, act and behave as you become increasingly dependent on the substance of your choice. When you drink an alcoholic beverage, inject heroin, take prescription painkillers or snort cocaine, these substances alter the way your brain processes chemicals called neurotransmitters. Each drug acts in a specific way to change the brain’s response to stimuli, but the end result is that the experience of using the substance is so pleasurable, relaxing or energizing that it triggers your internal reward system, making you want to repeat that experience again and again. Over time, your brain gets used to the response, and you need more of the drug to achieve the same euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedating effects. By this time, you may be displaying addictive behavior like: * Compulsively seeking the drug * Continuing to use the drug even though it’s obviously causing harm to you or your loved ones * Lying, stealing or doing other things that hurt your sense of integrity in order to get the drug * Taking dangerous risks in order to obtain or use the drug Blatantly stolen from the 3rd result of a Google search for "why are drugs addictive"
2 0 OhItsPreston Well, it depends on how in depth of an answer you're looking for. In general, the human brain is strongly wired to look for "reward", typically through activation of the dopamine pathway. These are dopamine (DA) producing neurons that extend from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to other areas of the brain like the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These DA pathways are generally activated by all sorts of "rewarding" stimuli that make you want them. Imagine anything that you anticipate, and that anticipation likely comes from DA. This could be food, sex, playing a videogame you've been looking forward to, the thought of a break from doing work, anything. It's a huge motivator and deeply ingrained in human biology. Almost all addictive drugs increase activity of the DA pathway, whether by increasing DA production, decreasing DA degradation, or lots of other mechanisms. This leads to individuals strongly seeking the source of the reward (the drug).
5 0 lunchlady55 Almost all addictive drugs act on the brain’s natural reward circuitry, changing the way you feel, act and behave as you become increasingly dependent on the substance of your choice. When you drink an alcoholic beverage, inject heroin, take prescription painkillers or snort cocaine, these substances alter the way your brain processes chemicals called neurotransmitters. Each drug acts in a specific way to change the brain’s response to stimuli, but the end result is that the experience of using the substance is so pleasurable, relaxing or energizing that it triggers your internal reward system, making you want to repeat that experience again and again. Over time, your brain gets used to the response, and you need more of the drug to achieve the same euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedating effects. By this time, you may be displaying addictive behavior like: * Compulsively seeking the drug * Continuing to use the drug even though it’s obviously causing harm to you or your loved ones * Lying, stealing or doing other things that hurt your sense of integrity in order to get the drug * Taking dangerous risks in order to obtain or use the drug Blatantly stolen from the 3rd result of a Google search for "why are drugs addictive"