Okay, I took a physiology class in college and I believe I know the correct info so I'm going to take a stab at this one.
Chewing your food helps with digestion in two main ways. First, when you first begin chewing your food, a signal is sent from your mouth to your brain telling it to prepare your stomach for the meal that's about to go down. This depends on how much the saliva in your mouth breaks down the food in your mouth, which will of course depend on how much time the food spends inside your mouth. Chewing and letting the food dissolve in your saliva will send signals to your stomach telling it to release these or those enzymes which will more or less be custom made for the specific food that you're currently eating. Scarfing down your food without chewing will cause your body to just break it down with whatever it has readily available, ie whatever enzymes and stomach acid content that it can muster up in the moment with the info it's been given.
The second way is the physical breakdown of food by chewing. The amount of chewing needed to get the highest possible output will depend on how fibrous the food is. Very fibrous food like kale stalks or black beans or corn kernels will oftentimes end up in the food output (poop) because they were simply not physically broken down enough by chewing and too tough to be broken down by acids and enzymes alone. And if they're not broken down in your poop, you better believe that you probably missed out on nutritional value (to be fair, not sure kale stalk has too much nutritional value.
In short, meal for meal, the nutritional value won't differ too terribly much depending what you're eating. Over the course of weeks, months, years, however, chewing absolutely will make a huge impact on nutritional absorption, not to mention the positive impact it will have on your digestive tract. Also worth mentioning, over chewing will cause problems of its own, as we are meant to be eating solid food at the end of the day.