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This question has already been asked on ELI5 multiple times.
Because people are asking (and getting rather abusive in comments *and* in private messages):
Not only is this question asked every time a goat video or image makes it to the front page, but [this was asked a mere 6 hours before OP posted this](https://www.reddit.com/r/explainlikeimfive/comments/6zrms5/eli5_how_do_goats_climb_vertical_surfaces_and_not/).
It was, in fact, posted many times within that timeframe. I removed three or four reposts myself, but left that one up.
*Please refer to our [detailed rules](http://www.reddit.com/r/explainlikeimfive/about/rules)*.
Great balance and precise movements.
Not unlike how it's kind of miraculous that humans are bipedal. Walking on 2 feet on uneven terrain and up stairs is pretty impressive too.
Because it's indeed only seemingly completely straight, a different angle: https://imgur.com/a/5g2zX
That picture is probably cut in that strange way only to hide what reveals it's not a vertical wall.
[because they crave that mineral. ](https://m.imgur.com/t/mineral/uwt3i6c)
On a more serious note, they have hooves that have evolved to be able to climb these almost straight surfaces and I'd assume a lot more muscles than we do as humans. Also probably a combination of speed + muscles + agility --> climbing up mountains
Edit: "designed" -> evolved
To start with their hoofs are very sharp and their legs are thin. So even if there is a slippery piece of rock sticking half an inch out from the cliff they can put their weight on it without slipping. They also have a lot of balance and control over their movements so they can balance on those narrow ledges. And of course it does help to have four legs. So just like a rock climber can climb seemingly straight smooth surfaces a goat can use a lot of the exact same footholds to climb up.
On top of every one else's mostly correct responses - Practice! Goats climb on and jump off of everything they can from birth. They have a real urge to get up on stuff and as babies they are terrible at it with lots of tumbles but they get better and better with time. r/goatparkour
How often do goats fall to their deaths when climbing up weird and vertical walls and cliff faces?
Goat hooves have a more rubbery texture than horse or cow etc hooves. They have grippy toes.. Plus, they're super agile/adventurous. Goats get themselves in all kinds of weird places.
Rigid, hard-rubber style hooves, and a lot of free food for scavengers at the bottoms of cliffs.
The have weird hoofs it's like a horses on the outside but a dogs soft in the middle giving them lots of grip.
"Since this pic was posted a few months ago, I can tell you the consensus then was that the photo is tilted and cropped to exaggerate the angle of the wall. Check out the angle of the trees in the foreground and background. "
"Yep, this is the actual angle." https://imgur.com/a/5g2zX
They don't climb up vertical surfaces. They can only climb less than vertical surfaces where they can "lean in" so that their center of mass is closer to the face than their hooves.
We humans can climb vertical and overhanging faces because we can use our hands (and other body parts) to hold ourselves into the rock face. Goats have only their hooves, so they are limited to less-than-vertical climbing. That said, they have adapted to allow them to "lean in" very well and climb more vertical surfaces than a lot of the predators that would try to eat them.
Boring answer: evolution. They evolved to be able to distribute most of their weight directly into and over top of their hooves, which are textured in such a way that allows them to 'grip' footholds in the hills. Their feet are also relatively tiny, allowing for more precise footing. They do this because it allows them to control an otherwise unexploited niche: cliff sides. Their positioning along the mountainside allows them to access vegetation that other animals can't reach, as well as avoid predators. Some species of goats will climb steep cliffs in order to lick salts off of the rocks.
Just like how Nepalese people [do it](https://www.reddit.com/r/pics/comments/1gyomq/appliance_delivery_guy_in_nepal_raw_power/). But in this case less weight. more power, and better control of CG.
Seemingly is correct. Also, seems like their center of mass is quite close to the wall, easy for their body type
Woah. I got this.
Ok, I was watching a BBC documentary last night about goat that climb.
The bottom of their hooves are concaved, so they act as almost a suction cup.
No other hooves animal had suction cup feet.