In Portuguese, "mil" means "thousand", so maybe they studied 8.3 thousands organizations, but the translator thought it was 8.3 million?
I have literally never heard the term "Queen Bee" used in that context.
Has this been examined in other cultures than Brazil as well?
How can they study 8.3 million organizations?
That seems like a *lot* of organizations, especially for this type of study.
Edit: let me summarize the concern here to be clear about it.
The claim is they are studying treatment of subordinates and how they advance in the organization.
What are the chances that there are 8.3 million organizations in Brazil where there is good data about how subordinates are advancing in an organization? There could hardly be that many organizations of any definition.
The study even says they chose a subset of the organization where there was a close election. So, many (how many?) of the organizations weren't studied at all.
It would be useful for someone who has access to the article to update what it was they actually studied.
Could this be caused by leaders appoint people they influenced in position of power to consolidate their own power? You know, like everyone at everywhere else?