We're filmmakers working on an AI doc that features developments in the self-driving car industry. Ask us anything!
Switching from unhealthy to healthier diet lowers depressive symptoms more than social support sessions
20 percent of Americans responsible for almost half of US food-related greenhouse gas emissions
Biophysicists have imaged the moment a photon sparks the first energy conversion steps of photosynthesis.
Toddlers learn nothing from YouTube videos. New study finds that two-year-olds enjoy the commercials more than the videos (and seem engaged with musical clips) but do not learn anything from YouTube.
A single intravenous infusion of ketamine led to a rapid decrease in suicidal ideations. Within a day, about 55% of individuals who received ketamine no longer had suicidal ideations compared to 20% who received placebo. This reduction in suicidal ideations lasted for at least 7 days.
Living abroad can clarify your sense of self. They found living abroad increases "self-concept clarity," the extent to which individuals' beliefs about themselves are clearly and confidently defined and consistent and stable over time.
A bat no bigger than a kiwi fruit logs distances of up to 100 kilometres on nightly round trips to its feeding grounds — the longest commute ever recorded for a nectar-feeding bat.
Published this week in the International Journal of Obesity, the study suggests that parents who underestimate the sugar content of everyday foods and beverages commonly included in children’s diets are exposing their children to an increased risk of obesity or overweight.
Read with them, watch with them. Toddlers that co-view with an engaged parent learn more words from videos than those that watch alone.
Using diamond, scientists build first continuous room-temperature solid-state maser - the microwave version of lasers. Possible applications include medical imaging, airport security scanners, improved bomb detection, and quantum computers.
The Effort Paradox: Prominent models indicate that effort is costly, and that we avoid it. A new series of studies show that this is only half the story. Humans and non-human animals alike tend to associate effort with reward and will sometimes select activities because they require effort
3D printer has for the first time combined several printing methods to produce devices out of multiple materials in a single print run. So far the machine has created basic electronic devices, but the technology brings us a step closer to printing complex equipment such as robots or smartphones
Wounds in the fetus can heal without scarring, a fact that has prompted scientists to design new biomaterials based on the properties of fetal skin. Now, a new type of nanofiber has been shown to heal wounds in mice faster and with less scarring than untreated wounds.
Biomimetic Artificial Organelles Implanted into Living Zebrafish Embryos made Functional In Vivo
How deep brain stimulation silenced cravings
Neutron star mergers may create much of the universe’s gold
Artificial Sweetener Splenda Promotes Gut Proteobacteria, Dysbiosis, and Myeloperoxidase Reactivity in Crohn’s Disease–Like Ileitis
Science AMA series: This is Daniel Himmelstein, PhD, and Casey Greene, PhD. We found that the Sci-Hub website has created a pirate repository of nearly all scholarly articles, which will push publishing towards more open models. Ask Us Anything!
New linguistic analysis finds that Dravidian language family is approximately 4,500 years old
Mumps virus outbreaks in Europe and the U.S. are linked to waning effectiveness of the vaccine: the increase in cases are more consistent with the loss of efficacy over time, rather than incomplete protection against an evolving virus. An additional dose, however, may extend protection.
The most sustainable end-of-life option for paper cups used for hot beverages - A new study shows that recycled cups were shown to have a better environmental performance, while digestion and composting resulted in a higher net reduction in CO2 emissions, up to 5.4 kg CO2 eq. per 1000 collected cups
Amygdala Neurons Increase as Children Become Adults; Except in Autism
Reconstructing the genetic history of late Neanderthals
Research shows millions of people across the world are getting the wrong care for low back pain.
The brain scanner you can move around in
Sad and lonely people have the best read on human nature—they are more perceptive than others in understanding how we act in social groups, researchers say
A new study has found that the children of centenarians (people who live to 100 years old or more), who tend to have similar healthy aging patterns and long lives like their parents, are also much more likely than the general population to have a strong sense of purpose.
Do your share: Perception of fair division of housework linked to better sex among married individuals in midlife, according to new research.
The Hidden Footprint of Making All Farms Organic: eliminating synthetic fertilizer, and making up for both the yield gap and the shadow footprint, would require at least an extra Australia-sized amount of land — between 40% and 100% more agricultural land than the amount we use today.
Virus fished from pond cures man’s deadly antibiotic-resistant infection - The clinical success suggests promising strategy for fighting antibiotic resistance, according to a paper published in the journal of Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.
An MIT-Made Robot Fish Will Study the World's Fragile Coral Reefs Unobtrusively: “You can start duplicating and make several of these robotic fish to use them almost like a network of sensors and cameras,”
More than one in 10 people who have never used class A drugs may have traces of cocaine or heroin on their fingertips, forensic scientists say. The scientists believe the participants became contaminated from banknotes, tables and other surfaces, as reported in the journal Clinical Chemistry.
Researchers discover a naturally occurring genetic variant that reduces the risk of chronic liver disease by up to 74%. A drug attempting recapitulate the effects of the genetic variant in the general population could enter the clinic within a year.
Tiny implants for cells are functional in vivo, Swiss scientists report.
Characterization of EEG signals revealing covert cognition in the injured brain
Use of brain diffusion tensor imaging for the prediction of long-term neurological outcomes in patients after cardiac arrest
Experiments that ask children to draw a researcher show a greater proportion of women in sketches over time. In the 1960s and 1970s, 99.4% of children drew a male scientist. That proportion dropped to 72% between 1985 and 2016. By the 2010s, about one in three drawings portrayed a female scientist.
Low back pain: a major global challenge
A Supercolony of Penguins Has Been Found Near Antarctica
Low Back Pain, Which Affects 540 Million Worldwide, Often Mistreated
932 tuctrohs As is common with these things, the authors of the actual scientific article present it more rationally and with less unjustified hype than the Popular Fiction article does. Their blurb says >A sweet source to make acrylonitrile >Much of the attention directed toward displacing petroleum feedstocks with biomass has focused on fuels. However, there are also numerous opportunities in commodity chemical production. One such candidate is acrylonitrile, a precursor to a wide variety of plastics and fibers that is currently derived from propylene. Karp et al. efficiently manufactured this compound from an ester (ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate) that can be sourced renewably from sugars. The process relies on inexpensive titania as a catalyst and avoids the side production of cyanide that accompanies propylene oxidation. In particular, they do not claim that this is going to radically decrease cost or that the petroleum feedstock is a significant driver of the cost of carbon fiber. I think this is motivated more by a general concept that we should get away from relying on petroleum, because we might run out of it. It seems to me more likely that we'll stop burning (as much) petroleum, and thus we won't run out, and will have it available for stuff like making carbon fiber. But even though I find the hype in the Popular Fiction article annoying, I like this research, for the fact low-cost catalyst which might be a real way to reduce the cost, and for avoiding the production of cyanide. # Edit: Adding some more details since there's been so much interest: From the scientific paper, not the popular science summary, some key numbers and statements around these issues are: >... state-of-the-art materials capable of producing ACN at molar yields of 83% from propylene. However, fluctuations in the price of the propylene feedstock translate directly to ACN price volatility. and >2 lbs of ACN are required to generate 1 lb of fiber and >On the basis of this proposed process, we performed a techno-economic analysis predicting the selling price of ACN at $0.89/lb from lignocellulosic sugars and $0.76/lb from sucrose. These target prices are in the range of fossil fuel–derived ACN prices between $0.40 and $1.00/lb over the past decade. Additionally, the greenhouse gas emissions from this process were estimated to achieve a 14.1% improvement relative to propylene-derived ACN. So that translates to a contribution to the cost of carbon fiber from the feedstock of $0.80 to $2/lb from petroleum or $1.52 to $1.78/lb from the new process. Best case, we are saving $0.48/lb of carbon fiber; worst case more than doubling the cost. Making carbon fiber requires more than ACN--it also requires a lot of energy and a lot of special equipment. The cost of the fibers--not the finished composite parts using them--is about $7-8 in large quantities. So best case we are talking about a 6 or 7% decrease in cost. That's a fantastic research contribution, and the authors should be proud of it and that attention it's getting. Now given those numbers, consider how the Popular Fiction article begins: > Carbon fiber is made from oil and other costly ingredients, making the end product exceptionally expensive. That’s why carbon fiber shows up in race cars but rarely makes it into minivans. >That could change. Scientists say it may soon be possible to make carbon fiber from plants instead of petroleum, driving down costs, making the material more widely available for use in cars, planes and other vehicles. There's a ounce of truth in each of those sentences but it deliberately implies a bigger impact than is plausible. Especially when you consider that not only is ACN just one part of the cost of carbon fiber: in additon, the cost of the carbon fiber is just one part of the cost of making a carbon fiber composite part. A lot of progress is being made in making the further steps more automated, but that isn't what this piece of work is about.
46 stdaro Here's some actual science: tl;dr = lignin powder, a cheap by product of paper production, could replace petroleum for the creation of carbon fiber precursors for a significant cost savings.
35 sangjmoon The problem is that oil is staying relatively cheap as the USA becomes the the largest producer of oil. As a side effect, the USA is also becoming the world powerhouse in petrochemicals like plastic and carbon fiber from oil.
11 Mharbles So basically skipping the middle-man of time by replacing ancient decomposed heavily processed plant life for new slightly less processed plant life
4 morthaz They already used cellulose as a precursor in the 70s. Union Carbide for example had a fiber named "Thornel 100" in 1971 that outperformed any PAN-based fiber at that time. I could link you the paper, if you are interested, but it's in german.
16 zeropi i tought the entire point of carbon fiber was to not make it from petroleum
3 tenorsaxhero What i would love to see take off in the united states is bioplastic bags.
7 Zhilenko There are a few differences between steel and carbon fiber, a lot of high end cars use carbon fiber in place of aluminum, but the composite material is only strong in tension along the directions of its fibers. It's not going to be able to replace the structural components in modern passenger cars without some significant overhaul on passenger safety systems. It's great as a body panel if you can make it cheap, but again it's not a tough material which means it fails completely when it fails such as in impact events. But this is a cool article highlighting the process improvement for acrylonitrile synthesis. The chemical is a precursor for modern lab and medical gloves too so it could have a significant impact.