Score
Title
7109
I’m Francis Collins, Director of the National Institutes of Health. As we celebrate the 15th anniversary of the completion of the Human Genome Project, I’m here to talk about its history and the critical role it has played in precision medicine. Ask me anything!
1627
Sometimes called “wear and tear” arthritis, osteoarthritis in people who are obese was long assumed to simply be a consequence of undue stress on joints. But researchers provide the first evidence that bacteria in the gut – governed by diet – could be the key driving force behind osteoarthritis.
980
A tooth-mounted sensor can track when patients consume glucose, salt, and alcohol. The 2-mm-by-2-mm device can then send data to smartphones and the like, according to a new study from Tufts.
106
By passively monitoring user-generated data from medical cannabis patients, researchers have glimpsed the types and amounts of marijuana that seem effective for relieving symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression, as reported in the Journal of Affective Disorders.
165
Researchers have characterized a complex, little-understood receptor type that, when activated, shuts off hunger. The findings may open up opportunities to fight obesity at the cellular level.
6852
A rare mutation among the Bajau people lets them stay underwater longer: natural selection at the PDE10A gene has increased spleen size in the Bajau, providing them with a larger reservoir of oxygenated red blood cells.
42396
Half the Coral in the Great Barrier Reef Has Died Since 2016 (paper sourced in article)
17
Researchers discover Autistic children inherit rare damaging noncoding variants from fathers but not mothers
37
A new study has confirmed that Hans Asperger, the Austrian pediatrician for whom a form of autism is named, collaborated with the Nazis and actively assisted in the killing of disabled children
40
A macque study finds a potential non-hormonal, fully reversible, and short-lived pharmacological male contraceptive that works through inhibition of sperm motility
15
Scientists discover mechanism behind motor neurone disease
7
Multistate Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce
14
In preclinical tests, researchers showed how a new compound can immobilize sperm temporarily without side effects
7
A common belief is that good-looking people also earn more money. But a new study turns this theory on its head. Researchers have found that people who are "very unattractive" may be the biggest earners, based on data from a study of 20,000 young Americans.
12
Acupuncture eases drug addiction withdrawal symptoms by activating peripheral nervous system, which stimulates neurons that restore dopamine levels.
18
An unprecedented wave of large-mammal extinctions is linked to prehistoric humans. Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and other recent human relatives hunted large mammal species to extinction. The magnitude and scale of the extinction wave surpasses any other recorded during the last 66 million years.
13
Scientist Can Now Stretch and Deform Diamonds
9
Scores of plant species are capable of living dormant under the soil for up to 20 years, enabling them to survive through difficult times
10
Associations of Prenatal and Child Sugar Intake With Child Cognition
534
A prototype early warning system for the four most common types of cancer makes a visible mole appear on the skin when calcium levels indicate a tumor has developed.
1981
Doctors who prescribe homeopathy ignore other medical guidelines, finds new study which looked at all the 7618 primary care practices in England.
1848
MIT engineers have developed a continuous manufacturing process that produces long strips of high-quality graphene. The team’s results are the first demonstration of an industrial, scalable method for manufacturing high-quality graphene.
5
Study: GMO Food Labels Could Burden Low-Income Consumers
28073
New drug uses antibodies to stop chronic migraines by blocking the neural pathway that sends pain signals to the brain during a migraine. Phase III trials on about 1,000 subjects are complete now and there are already plans for it to be approved by the FDA.
912
Due to climate change the niche of giant trees is projected to increase by ~4 million km2 globally - "Our results imply that strategic management could in principle facilitate the expansion of giant forests, securing critically endangered biodiversity as well as carbon storage."
188
New microscope creates 3D movies of cells in living organisms. "It's like Star Trek" say Harvard researchers.
2
Molecular Evolution at a Meiosis Gene Mediates Species Differences in the Rate and Patterning of Recombination
2956
Alzheimer’s Disease Starts in Childhood, with Symptoms Found in Babies Less Than a Year Old study in Metropolitan Mexico City finds . APOE4 carriers have higher suicide risk and higher odds of reaching NFT stage V at ? 40 years of age
2
Scientists Discover How to Bend and Stretch Diamonds—the Hardest Natural Material
477
Oil spills could be soaked up by a new floating substance that combines waste from the petroleum industry and cooking oil. The new polymer acted like a sponge to remove crude oil and diesel from seawater. The polymer can be squeezed to remove the oil and then reused.
126
Superionic ice has been created in the lab for the first time. The ultra-conductive version of ice, which accounts for 60% of Uranus and Neptune, was formed by compressing ice to 25,000 times the atmospheric pressure felt at sea level. The resulting ice was sixty times denser than regular water.
147
Cold Temp Exposure Causes Epigenetic Changes in Fat Cells
146
Researchers found that simply being told that a performer is a professional or a student changes the way the brain responds to music. They also found that overcoming this bias took a deliberate effort.
1674
Americans waste 150,000 tons of food each day – equal to a pound per person. USDA research shows people with healthy diets rich in fruit and vegetables are the most wasteful.
70
Male fruit flies enjoy ejaculation. Fly brains showed increased signs of a rewarding experience after ejaculating, even with no females present.
32
In an example of recent human evolution, scientists find free divers from Southeast Asia evolved bigger spleens, thought to give them greater endurance when holding their breaths.
91
Bold and Aggressive Behavior Means Birds Thrive in Cities
58
Mars' tiny moons (Phobos and Deimos) formed after proto-Mars collided with a dwarf-planet-sized object, finds new study.
132
A stunning cure for one of the world's most devastating blood diseases: A pioneering gene therapy vanquishes beta thalassemia in a pivotal clinical trial.
28
Drowning caused 80% of deaths from Hurricane Harvey. Study finds 78% of those deaths occurred outside zones designated as being at higher risk for flooding. US authorities outline floodplains for 100 and 500 year floods that had a 1% and 0.2% probability respectively of occurring in any given year.
1 Doomhammer458 Science AMAs are posted early to give readers a chance to ask questions and vote on the questions of others before the AMA starts. Guests of /r/science have volunteered to answer questions; please treat them with due respect. Comment rules will be strictly enforced, and uncivil or rude behavior will result in a loss of privileges in /r/science. If you have scientific expertise, please verify this with our moderators by getting your account flaired with the appropriate title. Instructions for obtaining flair are here: [reddit Science Flair Instructions](http://www.reddit.com/r/science/wiki/flair) (Flair is automatically synced with /r/EverythingScience as well.)
382 patanwilson Hello Janna, thanks for doing this. I remember reading years ago about a possible black hole scenario: A rotating black hole would increase its rotational speed as the mass collapsed further in on itself because of conservation of angular momentum, therefore some of the exterior mass would reach "escape velocity?" and would form a ring around the collapsing black hole. If I remember correctly, the overall mass of the black hole would cause a gravitational field that is survivable (no spaghettification) and could be used to either see the other side of the black hole or propel a spaceship to relativistic speeds. Am I remembering complete gibberish, or is this a plausible cosmic scenario for black holes? Thanks again!! **EDIT:** I believe she replied elsewhere, I'll paste her response here: Lots of interesting ideas here. A rotating black does twist spacetime like a tornado so that material gets caught in the whirlwind, like cows and trucks and dirt all get swirled around with tornados. Even if you have no angular momentum you will get dragged around the hole and likely fall in. If you have some angular momentum of your own, then yes you could be cast into a swirling disk around the black hole. And many black holes do have bright accretion disks where the matter slowly dribbles in. Think Interstellar. That black hole was very accurately represented with a swirling disk. Separate idea: the bigger the black hole, the more easily you will survive transit through the event horizon and you won’t be speghettified until you’re crushed to death inside the black hole. It’s harder to stand on a basketball (a small sphere) than the Earth (a huge sphere). Perhaps counter intuitively, you notice the curvature less and less the smaller you are compared to the size of the event horizon. All black holes, rotating or not, allow you to see behind them because even light travels along the curved spacetime. If you were to shine a flashlight directly “behind” (can’t say which is the front or the back) a black hole, some of the light will fall in, some will spray out and its path will curve around the black hole so that those standing on the other side will see your flashlight. The lesson: Don’t hide behind a black hole. They can still see you. **EDIT 2:** To expand on the question as u/WholeLot pointed out, I was apparently referring to a ring singularity or Kerr ring. Anything you'd like to add here Janna regarding this ring singularity or Kerr ring? Thanks!!
163 j4p4n Is it possible our understanding of black holes is flawed? What are some possible ways we might be misinterpreting the reality of the situation?
212 PHealthy NDT brought up an interesting point on [The Late Show recently](https://youtu.be/TgA2y-Bgi3c) about how the universe will/is expanding beyond the horizon. Do you think we've actually already lost cosmic information previously available to us or is this like a billions and billions of years from now kind of thing?
81 redditWinnower This AMA is being permanently archived by *The Winnower*, a publishing platform that offers traditional scholarly publishing tools to traditional *and* non-traditional scholarly outputs—because scholarly communication doesn’t just happen in journals. To cite this AMA please use: [https://doi.org/10.15200/winn.151576.65079](https://www.thewinnower.com/papers/8106-science-ama-series-i-m-janna-levin-astrophysicist-author-and-host-of-nova-s-black-hole-apocalypse-ask-me-anything-about-black-holes-the-universe-life-whatever) You can learn more and start contributing at [*authorea.com*](https://authorea.com)
38 nate Thanks for taking the time for this AMA! After watching Nova the other night, the early development of black holes in the young universe seems to have been critical for the establishment of galaxies. This early universe was a smaller place due to the expansion of the universe, could super-massive black hole has been formed by black hole combining in a smaller volume of universe? If so, what would the effects of the gravitational waves generated be on the structure of galaxies? It's a simple, and inaccurate analogy, but if you watch the surface of a pond, small floating bits of leaves and what not tend to be driven together by the motion of the surface. Would these gravitational waves actually empart force on matter?
71 Monolith1011 With the size of Sagittarius A what kind of star or other event is capable of creating such a large black hole? Or did it simply absorb enough mass to obtain its size? And how long would it take something of its size to fizzle out due to Hawking radiation?
33 RYMN8R What advances in science do you see being made within the next ten years?
62 Pynchon_A_Loaff It has been said that the directions of space and time “reverse” within the event horizon of a black hole - the singularity effectively becomes your unavoidable “future”. Does this mean that there is some degree of freedom to move through time or receive information from the future in the moments before you reach the singularity? I’m assuming a really huge black hole where tidal forces may be survivable near the event horizon?
101 invalid_dictorian Saw Nova on Wednesday. Entire family enjoyed it. Is it possible that our entire galaxy or even the observable universe is inside the event horizon of a gigantic super massive black hole? How can we detect that this is or is not the case? For such a large black hole, is it possible that objects can escape out of its event horizon through cosmic expansion of space?
45 DigiMagic I was confused by some data related to LIGO's observations of gravitational waves. Say you have two black holes, each weighing 20 Solar masses. They merge together, the resulting black holes weighs say 30 Solar masses, while 10 were radiated away as energy of gravitational waves. Now, if nothing can leave black holes, how was that huge amount energy able to leave them anyway?
19 daneelthesane I watched your Nova episode, and it was fantastic! Your hosting was excellent. In the special, it is mentioned that there is a limit to how much material a supermassive black hole can consume in a period of time, due to the photonic pressure of the light emitted by the accretion disk. Does this mean that quasars would actually be *more* bright if this limit did not exist? Also, would this not suggest that many quasars would be of equal brightness, since they have reached this limit? My second question is this: It is mentioned that inside the event horizon, an observer (the astronaut who got e't by the black hole) would see the entire future of the universe play out due to time dilation. However, give the funky things that black holes do to the path of light in the vicinity of the event horizon, would the geometry of space-time allow the light entering the black hole to even be coherent enough to extract such an image, let alone see it with one's eyes? I know there is a lot of talk about information being consumed by black holes, but is that information in any kind of coherent form once it is inside the black hole?
52 imzombie This may be a silly, simplistic question with a difficult answer... But what is the current theory for what's in / on the other side of a black hole?
37 Gregbot4 Can we create mini black holes and use them for technology? Are there certain attributes limiting the mini black holes we create from being usable?
16 Iwillreign In your opinion, When do you think technology will be advanced enough for humans to capture images or footage of an actual black hole?
13 drchaos2000 How does an actual work day look like for a person in your position ? is it mostly meetings and coordination ? or do you crunch numbers over an excel sheet ? do you calibrate and finetune your devices ?
37 ObeliskOfficial Have you seen the movie "interstellar?" How realistic is the halo of light around the black hole in the movie? Also, if "white holes" do exist, what is their relation to black hole and how would they affect spacetime, compared to a black hole?
47 surffawkes If Black Holes are “rips” in space time, at the Planck length, what is on the other side of space time?
27 rizombie Hey there, thanks for the AMA! What is the best way for someone who just has a basic understanding of physics to get into astrophysics and understand the universe a bit more ? Can you recommend any series, youtube series or book series that explain things in a simple yet interesting and detailed way ? Could you recommend something for my 11 year old sister as well?
1 0 Doomhammer458 Science AMAs are posted early to give readers a chance to ask questions and vote on the questions of others before the AMA starts. Guests of /r/science have volunteered to answer questions; please treat them with due respect. Comment rules will be strictly enforced, and uncivil or rude behavior will result in a loss of privileges in /r/science. If you have scientific expertise, please verify this with our moderators by getting your account flaired with the appropriate title. Instructions for obtaining flair are here: [reddit Science Flair Instructions](http://www.reddit.com/r/science/wiki/flair) (Flair is automatically synced with /r/EverythingScience as well.)
382 0 patanwilson Hello Janna, thanks for doing this. I remember reading years ago about a possible black hole scenario: A rotating black hole would increase its rotational speed as the mass collapsed further in on itself because of conservation of angular momentum, therefore some of the exterior mass would reach "escape velocity?" and would form a ring around the collapsing black hole. If I remember correctly, the overall mass of the black hole would cause a gravitational field that is survivable (no spaghettification) and could be used to either see the other side of the black hole or propel a spaceship to relativistic speeds. Am I remembering complete gibberish, or is this a plausible cosmic scenario for black holes? Thanks again!! **EDIT:** I believe she replied elsewhere, I'll paste her response here: Lots of interesting ideas here. A rotating black does twist spacetime like a tornado so that material gets caught in the whirlwind, like cows and trucks and dirt all get swirled around with tornados. Even if you have no angular momentum you will get dragged around the hole and likely fall in. If you have some angular momentum of your own, then yes you could be cast into a swirling disk around the black hole. And many black holes do have bright accretion disks where the matter slowly dribbles in. Think Interstellar. That black hole was very accurately represented with a swirling disk. Separate idea: the bigger the black hole, the more easily you will survive transit through the event horizon and you won’t be speghettified until you’re crushed to death inside the black hole. It’s harder to stand on a basketball (a small sphere) than the Earth (a huge sphere). Perhaps counter intuitively, you notice the curvature less and less the smaller you are compared to the size of the event horizon. All black holes, rotating or not, allow you to see behind them because even light travels along the curved spacetime. If you were to shine a flashlight directly “behind” (can’t say which is the front or the back) a black hole, some of the light will fall in, some will spray out and its path will curve around the black hole so that those standing on the other side will see your flashlight. The lesson: Don’t hide behind a black hole. They can still see you. **EDIT 2:** To expand on the question as u/WholeLot pointed out, I was apparently referring to a ring singularity or Kerr ring. Anything you'd like to add here Janna regarding this ring singularity or Kerr ring? Thanks!!
161 0 j4p4n Is it possible our understanding of black holes is flawed? What are some possible ways we might be misinterpreting the reality of the situation?
216 0 PHealthy NDT brought up an interesting point on [The Late Show recently](https://youtu.be/TgA2y-Bgi3c) about how the universe will/is expanding beyond the horizon. Do you think we've actually already lost cosmic information previously available to us or is this like a billions and billions of years from now kind of thing?
83 0 redditWinnower This AMA is being permanently archived by *The Winnower*, a publishing platform that offers traditional scholarly publishing tools to traditional *and* non-traditional scholarly outputs—because scholarly communication doesn’t just happen in journals. To cite this AMA please use: [https://doi.org/10.15200/winn.151576.65079](https://www.thewinnower.com/papers/8106-science-ama-series-i-m-janna-levin-astrophysicist-author-and-host-of-nova-s-black-hole-apocalypse-ask-me-anything-about-black-holes-the-universe-life-whatever) You can learn more and start contributing at [*authorea.com*](https://authorea.com)
35 0 nate Thanks for taking the time for this AMA! After watching Nova the other night, the early development of black holes in the young universe seems to have been critical for the establishment of galaxies. This early universe was a smaller place due to the expansion of the universe, could super-massive black hole has been formed by black hole combining in a smaller volume of universe? If so, what would the effects of the gravitational waves generated be on the structure of galaxies? It's a simple, and inaccurate analogy, but if you watch the surface of a pond, small floating bits of leaves and what not tend to be driven together by the motion of the surface. Would these gravitational waves actually empart force on matter?
70 0 Monolith1011 With the size of Sagittarius A what kind of star or other event is capable of creating such a large black hole? Or did it simply absorb enough mass to obtain its size? And how long would it take something of its size to fizzle out due to Hawking radiation?
34 0 RYMN8R What advances in science do you see being made within the next ten years?
64 0 Pynchon_A_Loaff It has been said that the directions of space and time “reverse” within the event horizon of a black hole - the singularity effectively becomes your unavoidable “future”. Does this mean that there is some degree of freedom to move through time or receive information from the future in the moments before you reach the singularity? I’m assuming a really huge black hole where tidal forces may be survivable near the event horizon?
104 0 invalid_dictorian Saw Nova on Wednesday. Entire family enjoyed it. Is it possible that our entire galaxy or even the observable universe is inside the event horizon of a gigantic super massive black hole? How can we detect that this is or is not the case? For such a large black hole, is it possible that objects can escape out of its event horizon through cosmic expansion of space?
45 0 DigiMagic I was confused by some data related to LIGO's observations of gravitational waves. Say you have two black holes, each weighing 20 Solar masses. They merge together, the resulting black holes weighs say 30 Solar masses, while 10 were radiated away as energy of gravitational waves. Now, if nothing can leave black holes, how was that huge amount energy able to leave them anyway?
19 0 daneelthesane I watched your Nova episode, and it was fantastic! Your hosting was excellent. In the special, it is mentioned that there is a limit to how much material a supermassive black hole can consume in a period of time, due to the photonic pressure of the light emitted by the accretion disk. Does this mean that quasars would actually be *more* bright if this limit did not exist? Also, would this not suggest that many quasars would be of equal brightness, since they have reached this limit? My second question is this: It is mentioned that inside the event horizon, an observer (the astronaut who got e't by the black hole) would see the entire future of the universe play out due to time dilation. However, give the funky things that black holes do to the path of light in the vicinity of the event horizon, would the geometry of space-time allow the light entering the black hole to even be coherent enough to extract such an image, let alone see it with one's eyes? I know there is a lot of talk about information being consumed by black holes, but is that information in any kind of coherent form once it is inside the black hole?
53 0 imzombie This may be a silly, simplistic question with a difficult answer... But what is the current theory for what's in / on the other side of a black hole?
37 0 Gregbot4 Can we create mini black holes and use them for technology? Are there certain attributes limiting the mini black holes we create from being usable?
17 0 Iwillreign In your opinion, When do you think technology will be advanced enough for humans to capture images or footage of an actual black hole?
13 0 drchaos2000 How does an actual work day look like for a person in your position ? is it mostly meetings and coordination ? or do you crunch numbers over an excel sheet ? do you calibrate and finetune your devices ?
35 0 ObeliskOfficial Have you seen the movie "interstellar?" How realistic is the halo of light around the black hole in the movie? Also, if "white holes" do exist, what is their relation to black hole and how would they affect spacetime, compared to a black hole?
50 0 surffawkes If Black Holes are “rips” in space time, at the Planck length, what is on the other side of space time?
26 0 rizombie Hey there, thanks for the AMA! What is the best way for someone who just has a basic understanding of physics to get into astrophysics and understand the universe a bit more ? Can you recommend any series, youtube series or book series that explain things in a simple yet interesting and detailed way ? Could you recommend something for my 11 year old sister as well?