Score
Title
66794
Binghamton University researchers have been working on a self-healing concrete that uses a specific type of fungi as a healing agent. When the fungus is mixed with concrete, it lies dormant until cracks appear, when spores germinate, grow and precipitate calcium carbonate to heal the cracks.
70
Key to willpower lies in believing you have it in abundance. People who believe they have an abundant supply of self-control are more likely to feel invigorated by mentally taxing activities than people who believe their willpower is a finite resource
71
Survival rate after heart transplantation in children has reached to 70%
244
Creative People's Brains Are Uniquely Wired, Scientists Discover. Researchers discovered is that when we’re being creative, a certain neurological pattern or signature occurs inside the brain
11300
According to a recent study, spanked children were five times more likely to experience delays in language development than children who weren’t. Scolded and spanked children were more likely to suffer delays in developing language and socio-adaptive skills.
835
The Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies has announced that they have discovered the minimum required mass for a star to become a black hole - 2.16 solar masses
74
The study in which researchers synthesized a smallpox relative from scratch just got published in an open access journal, spelling out how a virologist ordered bits of horsepox DNA from the internet, assembled them, then showed that the resulting virus was able to infect cells and reproduce.
38
Climbing rates of carbon dioxide have set the stage for a multidecade increase in overall flower production in tropical forests.
494
Infant mortality rates in Texas vary dramatically from one zip code to the next, according to new study. In Fort Worth, for example, the infant mortality rate was over six times higher in the 76164 zip code than in neighboring 76107.
46
A type of onion could help the fight against antibiotic resistance in cases of tuberculosis, a study has suggested. Researchers believe the antibacterial properties extracted from the Persian shallot could increase the effects of existing antibiotic treatment.
47211
Scientists edge closer to creating a blood test that can detect multiple types of cancers, seeing success rates of around 70% in cancerous individuals
13
Researchers illustrate how muscle growth inhibitor is activated, could aid in treating ALS
40
Hunter-gatherer lifestyle could help explain superior ability to ID smells. Foraging communities in forests of the Malay Peninsula are better at identifying odors than their rice-farming neighbour
426
Bikram is no more beneficial than any other type of yoga, says vascular study. Yoga could help to improve function of artery linings regardless of room temperature, researchers conclude.
12
Georgetown in northern Queensland once part of North America-geologists
8
Sustained Delivery of Doxorubicin via Acetalated Dextran Scaffold Prevents Glioblastoma Recurrence after Surgical Resection
550
A study has found Inherited IQ can increase in early childhood. The study, the researchers say, has significant implications for the way we educate children, whose inherited IQ can increase, especially during early childhood, with the right kind of stimulation and attention.
10
Scientists have used forensics, chemistry, and microbiology to generate clues in a murder investigation. Using science alone, they discovered that the victim died in the fall/winter, probably on a farm. Then, the body was moved to its final location in early spring where it was partially burned.
0
security computing-CSCC: 10 steps to ensure security for cloud computing success
150
Study tracking long-term risk of bariatric surgery reports that obese, middle-age men and women who had undergone the procedure had half the death rate of those who had traditional medical treatment over a 10-year period.
431
Researchers have tailored a 3D printer to synthesize pharmaceuticals and other chemicals from simple, widely available starting compounds fed into a series of 3D-printed reactors. The work could digitize chemistry, allowing users to synthesize almost any compound anywhere in the world.
8
A novel approach for human whole transcriptome analysis based on absolute gene expression of microarray data
20194
Hi! We’re here to talk about all things CRISPR and NIH’s Center of Excellence in Genomic Science. We’re researchers from Jennifer Doudna’s lab at UC-Berkeley and program directors from the National Human Genome Research Institute, part of NIH. Ask us anything!
31
Electrons in organic semiconductors capable of traveling much farther than previously thought (centimeters!)
1365
A surprising study found people who had smoked pot as teens performed better on a memory test, based on an fMRI study published in journal NeuroImage.
40
Science study: "Our approach led to gains of roughly 40-70% in refugees’ employment outcomes relative to current assignment practices. This approach can provide governments with a practical and cost-efficient policy tool that can be immediately implemented within existing institutional structures."
23
Scientists create a tiny rheometer with nanorobots
1059
There were no safety concerns in smokers who used e-cigarettes in a 2-year clinical trial. Vaping was associated with a reduction in cigarette consumption and a reduced exposure to cigarette smoke constituents, with no increase in body weight.
32
In 2015, an estimated 200,000 saiga antelope (representing 2/3 of the global population) dropped dead for no apparent reason. A study on rats has led scientists to identify the likely culprit of what suddenly killed them: a normally harmless bacteria made deadly by climate change.
66
Scientists create ultrafast robot arms from DNA by using electric fields to speed up their movements by five orders of magnitude over previous DNA systems
27
The universe is as spooky as Einstein thought - Atlantic
441
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) results from head injuries, not concussions. New research explains why 20% of athletes who exhibited the early stages of the progressive brain illness postmortem never had a diagnosed concussion.
34
When repeating a word the visual and auditory cortexes react first to perceive the word, the prefrontal cortex reacts to interpret the meaning and is followed by activation of the motor cortex in preparation for a response, a process that takes half a second.
63
Rotavirus vaccines, which prevent a highly contagious diarrheal disease in children, has had a positive unexpected consequence: It has also reduced hospitalizations due to seizures in children.
4
Germline BRCA mutation and outcome in young-onset breast cancer (POSH): a prospective cohort study.There was no significant difference in overall survival between BRCA-positive and BRCA-negative patients in multivariable analyses at any timepoint 2-10 years.
9
NIH scientists find microbes on the skin of mice promote tissue healing, immunity
7
Knowledge Discovery through Data mining (KDD) can help make sense of large amounts of complex climate data
22
A recent study published in the journal PLOS One has revealed that regularly attending religious ceremonies, such as a mass or a funeral, may lead to greater health and increased longevity in middle-aged people and seniors.
168
It is easier to spread the flu virus than previously thought. People commonly believe that they can catch the flu by exposure to droplets from an infected person's coughs or sneezes. But new information about flu transmission reveals that we may pass the flu to others just by breathing.
19
New method to stop cells dividing could help fight cancer - Lipids Shape the Electron Acceptor-Binding Site of the Peripheral Membrane Protein Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase
1 Doomhammer458 Science AMAs are posted early to give readers a chance to ask questions and vote on the questions of others before the AMA starts. Guests of /r/science have volunteered to answer questions; please treat them with due respect. Comment rules will be strictly enforced, and uncivil or rude behavior will result in a loss of privileges in /r/science. If you have scientific expertise, please verify this with our moderators by getting your account flaired with the appropriate title. Instructions for obtaining flair are here: [reddit Science Flair Instructions](http://www.reddit.com/r/science/wiki/flair) (Flair is automatically synced with /r/EverythingScience as well.)
378 patanwilson Hello Janna, thanks for doing this. I remember reading years ago about a possible black hole scenario: A rotating black hole would increase its rotational speed as the mass collapsed further in on itself because of conservation of angular momentum, therefore some of the exterior mass would reach "escape velocity?" and would form a ring around the collapsing black hole. If I remember correctly, the overall mass of the black hole would cause a gravitational field that is survivable (no spaghettification) and could be used to either see the other side of the black hole or propel a spaceship to relativistic speeds. Am I remembering complete gibberish, or is this a plausible cosmic scenario for black holes? Thanks again!! **EDIT:** I believe she replied elsewhere, I'll paste her response here: Lots of interesting ideas here. A rotating black does twist spacetime like a tornado so that material gets caught in the whirlwind, like cows and trucks and dirt all get swirled around with tornados. Even if you have no angular momentum you will get dragged around the hole and likely fall in. If you have some angular momentum of your own, then yes you could be cast into a swirling disk around the black hole. And many black holes do have bright accretion disks where the matter slowly dribbles in. Think Interstellar. That black hole was very accurately represented with a swirling disk. Separate idea: the bigger the black hole, the more easily you will survive transit through the event horizon and you won’t be speghettified until you’re crushed to death inside the black hole. It’s harder to stand on a basketball (a small sphere) than the Earth (a huge sphere). Perhaps counter intuitively, you notice the curvature less and less the smaller you are compared to the size of the event horizon. All black holes, rotating or not, allow you to see behind them because even light travels along the curved spacetime. If you were to shine a flashlight directly “behind” (can’t say which is the front or the back) a black hole, some of the light will fall in, some will spray out and its path will curve around the black hole so that those standing on the other side will see your flashlight. The lesson: Don’t hide behind a black hole. They can still see you. **EDIT 2:** To expand on the question as u/WholeLot pointed out, I was apparently referring to a ring singularity or Kerr ring. Anything you'd like to add here Janna regarding this ring singularity or Kerr ring? Thanks!!
159 j4p4n Is it possible our understanding of black holes is flawed? What are some possible ways we might be misinterpreting the reality of the situation?
219 PHealthy NDT brought up an interesting point on [The Late Show recently](https://youtu.be/TgA2y-Bgi3c) about how the universe will/is expanding beyond the horizon. Do you think we've actually already lost cosmic information previously available to us or is this like a billions and billions of years from now kind of thing?
78 redditWinnower This AMA is being permanently archived by *The Winnower*, a publishing platform that offers traditional scholarly publishing tools to traditional *and* non-traditional scholarly outputs—because scholarly communication doesn’t just happen in journals. To cite this AMA please use: [https://doi.org/10.15200/winn.151576.65079](https://www.thewinnower.com/papers/8106-science-ama-series-i-m-janna-levin-astrophysicist-author-and-host-of-nova-s-black-hole-apocalypse-ask-me-anything-about-black-holes-the-universe-life-whatever) You can learn more and start contributing at [*authorea.com*](https://authorea.com)
35 nate Thanks for taking the time for this AMA! After watching Nova the other night, the early development of black holes in the young universe seems to have been critical for the establishment of galaxies. This early universe was a smaller place due to the expansion of the universe, could super-massive black hole has been formed by black hole combining in a smaller volume of universe? If so, what would the effects of the gravitational waves generated be on the structure of galaxies? It's a simple, and inaccurate analogy, but if you watch the surface of a pond, small floating bits of leaves and what not tend to be driven together by the motion of the surface. Would these gravitational waves actually empart force on matter?
71 Monolith1011 With the size of Sagittarius A what kind of star or other event is capable of creating such a large black hole? Or did it simply absorb enough mass to obtain its size? And how long would it take something of its size to fizzle out due to Hawking radiation?
34 RYMN8R What advances in science do you see being made within the next ten years?
58 Pynchon_A_Loaff It has been said that the directions of space and time “reverse” within the event horizon of a black hole - the singularity effectively becomes your unavoidable “future”. Does this mean that there is some degree of freedom to move through time or receive information from the future in the moments before you reach the singularity? I’m assuming a really huge black hole where tidal forces may be survivable near the event horizon?
104 invalid_dictorian Saw Nova on Wednesday. Entire family enjoyed it. Is it possible that our entire galaxy or even the observable universe is inside the event horizon of a gigantic super massive black hole? How can we detect that this is or is not the case? For such a large black hole, is it possible that objects can escape out of its event horizon through cosmic expansion of space?
48 DigiMagic I was confused by some data related to LIGO's observations of gravitational waves. Say you have two black holes, each weighing 20 Solar masses. They merge together, the resulting black holes weighs say 30 Solar masses, while 10 were radiated away as energy of gravitational waves. Now, if nothing can leave black holes, how was that huge amount energy able to leave them anyway?
18 daneelthesane I watched your Nova episode, and it was fantastic! Your hosting was excellent. In the special, it is mentioned that there is a limit to how much material a supermassive black hole can consume in a period of time, due to the photonic pressure of the light emitted by the accretion disk. Does this mean that quasars would actually be *more* bright if this limit did not exist? Also, would this not suggest that many quasars would be of equal brightness, since they have reached this limit? My second question is this: It is mentioned that inside the event horizon, an observer (the astronaut who got e't by the black hole) would see the entire future of the universe play out due to time dilation. However, give the funky things that black holes do to the path of light in the vicinity of the event horizon, would the geometry of space-time allow the light entering the black hole to even be coherent enough to extract such an image, let alone see it with one's eyes? I know there is a lot of talk about information being consumed by black holes, but is that information in any kind of coherent form once it is inside the black hole?
54 imzombie This may be a silly, simplistic question with a difficult answer... But what is the current theory for what's in / on the other side of a black hole?
35 Gregbot4 Can we create mini black holes and use them for technology? Are there certain attributes limiting the mini black holes we create from being usable?
15 Iwillreign In your opinion, When do you think technology will be advanced enough for humans to capture images or footage of an actual black hole?
14 drchaos2000 How does an actual work day look like for a person in your position ? is it mostly meetings and coordination ? or do you crunch numbers over an excel sheet ? do you calibrate and finetune your devices ?
36 ObeliskOfficial Have you seen the movie "interstellar?" How realistic is the halo of light around the black hole in the movie? Also, if "white holes" do exist, what is their relation to black hole and how would they affect spacetime, compared to a black hole?
47 surffawkes If Black Holes are “rips” in space time, at the Planck length, what is on the other side of space time?
27 rizombie Hey there, thanks for the AMA! What is the best way for someone who just has a basic understanding of physics to get into astrophysics and understand the universe a bit more ? Can you recommend any series, youtube series or book series that explain things in a simple yet interesting and detailed way ? Could you recommend something for my 11 year old sister as well?
1 0 Doomhammer458 Science AMAs are posted early to give readers a chance to ask questions and vote on the questions of others before the AMA starts. Guests of /r/science have volunteered to answer questions; please treat them with due respect. Comment rules will be strictly enforced, and uncivil or rude behavior will result in a loss of privileges in /r/science. If you have scientific expertise, please verify this with our moderators by getting your account flaired with the appropriate title. Instructions for obtaining flair are here: [reddit Science Flair Instructions](http://www.reddit.com/r/science/wiki/flair) (Flair is automatically synced with /r/EverythingScience as well.)
381 0 patanwilson Hello Janna, thanks for doing this. I remember reading years ago about a possible black hole scenario: A rotating black hole would increase its rotational speed as the mass collapsed further in on itself because of conservation of angular momentum, therefore some of the exterior mass would reach "escape velocity?" and would form a ring around the collapsing black hole. If I remember correctly, the overall mass of the black hole would cause a gravitational field that is survivable (no spaghettification) and could be used to either see the other side of the black hole or propel a spaceship to relativistic speeds. Am I remembering complete gibberish, or is this a plausible cosmic scenario for black holes? Thanks again!! **EDIT:** I believe she replied elsewhere, I'll paste her response here: Lots of interesting ideas here. A rotating black does twist spacetime like a tornado so that material gets caught in the whirlwind, like cows and trucks and dirt all get swirled around with tornados. Even if you have no angular momentum you will get dragged around the hole and likely fall in. If you have some angular momentum of your own, then yes you could be cast into a swirling disk around the black hole. And many black holes do have bright accretion disks where the matter slowly dribbles in. Think Interstellar. That black hole was very accurately represented with a swirling disk. Separate idea: the bigger the black hole, the more easily you will survive transit through the event horizon and you won’t be speghettified until you’re crushed to death inside the black hole. It’s harder to stand on a basketball (a small sphere) than the Earth (a huge sphere). Perhaps counter intuitively, you notice the curvature less and less the smaller you are compared to the size of the event horizon. All black holes, rotating or not, allow you to see behind them because even light travels along the curved spacetime. If you were to shine a flashlight directly “behind” (can’t say which is the front or the back) a black hole, some of the light will fall in, some will spray out and its path will curve around the black hole so that those standing on the other side will see your flashlight. The lesson: Don’t hide behind a black hole. They can still see you. **EDIT 2:** To expand on the question as u/WholeLot pointed out, I was apparently referring to a ring singularity or Kerr ring. Anything you'd like to add here Janna regarding this ring singularity or Kerr ring? Thanks!!
157 0 j4p4n Is it possible our understanding of black holes is flawed? What are some possible ways we might be misinterpreting the reality of the situation?
217 0 PHealthy NDT brought up an interesting point on [The Late Show recently](https://youtu.be/TgA2y-Bgi3c) about how the universe will/is expanding beyond the horizon. Do you think we've actually already lost cosmic information previously available to us or is this like a billions and billions of years from now kind of thing?
82 0 redditWinnower This AMA is being permanently archived by *The Winnower*, a publishing platform that offers traditional scholarly publishing tools to traditional *and* non-traditional scholarly outputs—because scholarly communication doesn’t just happen in journals. To cite this AMA please use: [https://doi.org/10.15200/winn.151576.65079](https://www.thewinnower.com/papers/8106-science-ama-series-i-m-janna-levin-astrophysicist-author-and-host-of-nova-s-black-hole-apocalypse-ask-me-anything-about-black-holes-the-universe-life-whatever) You can learn more and start contributing at [*authorea.com*](https://authorea.com)
32 0 nate Thanks for taking the time for this AMA! After watching Nova the other night, the early development of black holes in the young universe seems to have been critical for the establishment of galaxies. This early universe was a smaller place due to the expansion of the universe, could super-massive black hole has been formed by black hole combining in a smaller volume of universe? If so, what would the effects of the gravitational waves generated be on the structure of galaxies? It's a simple, and inaccurate analogy, but if you watch the surface of a pond, small floating bits of leaves and what not tend to be driven together by the motion of the surface. Would these gravitational waves actually empart force on matter?
72 0 Monolith1011 With the size of Sagittarius A what kind of star or other event is capable of creating such a large black hole? Or did it simply absorb enough mass to obtain its size? And how long would it take something of its size to fizzle out due to Hawking radiation?
31 0 RYMN8R What advances in science do you see being made within the next ten years?
62 0 Pynchon_A_Loaff It has been said that the directions of space and time “reverse” within the event horizon of a black hole - the singularity effectively becomes your unavoidable “future”. Does this mean that there is some degree of freedom to move through time or receive information from the future in the moments before you reach the singularity? I’m assuming a really huge black hole where tidal forces may be survivable near the event horizon?
102 0 invalid_dictorian Saw Nova on Wednesday. Entire family enjoyed it. Is it possible that our entire galaxy or even the observable universe is inside the event horizon of a gigantic super massive black hole? How can we detect that this is or is not the case? For such a large black hole, is it possible that objects can escape out of its event horizon through cosmic expansion of space?
45 0 DigiMagic I was confused by some data related to LIGO's observations of gravitational waves. Say you have two black holes, each weighing 20 Solar masses. They merge together, the resulting black holes weighs say 30 Solar masses, while 10 were radiated away as energy of gravitational waves. Now, if nothing can leave black holes, how was that huge amount energy able to leave them anyway?
18 0 daneelthesane I watched your Nova episode, and it was fantastic! Your hosting was excellent. In the special, it is mentioned that there is a limit to how much material a supermassive black hole can consume in a period of time, due to the photonic pressure of the light emitted by the accretion disk. Does this mean that quasars would actually be *more* bright if this limit did not exist? Also, would this not suggest that many quasars would be of equal brightness, since they have reached this limit? My second question is this: It is mentioned that inside the event horizon, an observer (the astronaut who got e't by the black hole) would see the entire future of the universe play out due to time dilation. However, give the funky things that black holes do to the path of light in the vicinity of the event horizon, would the geometry of space-time allow the light entering the black hole to even be coherent enough to extract such an image, let alone see it with one's eyes? I know there is a lot of talk about information being consumed by black holes, but is that information in any kind of coherent form once it is inside the black hole?
53 0 imzombie This may be a silly, simplistic question with a difficult answer... But what is the current theory for what's in / on the other side of a black hole?
35 0 Gregbot4 Can we create mini black holes and use them for technology? Are there certain attributes limiting the mini black holes we create from being usable?
15 0 Iwillreign In your opinion, When do you think technology will be advanced enough for humans to capture images or footage of an actual black hole?
12 0 drchaos2000 How does an actual work day look like for a person in your position ? is it mostly meetings and coordination ? or do you crunch numbers over an excel sheet ? do you calibrate and finetune your devices ?
38 0 ObeliskOfficial Have you seen the movie "interstellar?" How realistic is the halo of light around the black hole in the movie? Also, if "white holes" do exist, what is their relation to black hole and how would they affect spacetime, compared to a black hole?
51 0 surffawkes If Black Holes are “rips” in space time, at the Planck length, what is on the other side of space time?
25 0 rizombie Hey there, thanks for the AMA! What is the best way for someone who just has a basic understanding of physics to get into astrophysics and understand the universe a bit more ? Can you recommend any series, youtube series or book series that explain things in a simple yet interesting and detailed way ? Could you recommend something for my 11 year old sister as well?