I’m Francis Collins, Director of the National Institutes of Health. As we celebrate the 15th anniversary of the completion of the Human Genome Project, I’m here to talk about its history and the critical role it has played in precision medicine. Ask me anything!
Sometimes called “wear and tear” arthritis, osteoarthritis in people who are obese was long assumed to simply be a consequence of undue stress on joints. But researchers provide the first evidence that bacteria in the gut – governed by diet – could be the key driving force behind osteoarthritis.
A tooth-mounted sensor can track when patients consume glucose, salt, and alcohol. The 2-mm-by-2-mm device can then send data to smartphones and the like, according to a new study from Tufts.
By passively monitoring user-generated data from medical cannabis patients, researchers have glimpsed the types and amounts of marijuana that seem effective for relieving symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression, as reported in the Journal of Affective Disorders.
Researchers have characterized a complex, little-understood receptor type that, when activated, shuts off hunger. The findings may open up opportunities to fight obesity at the cellular level.
A rare mutation among the Bajau people lets them stay underwater longer: natural selection at the PDE10A gene has increased spleen size in the Bajau, providing them with a larger reservoir of oxygenated red blood cells.
Half the Coral in the Great Barrier Reef Has Died Since 2016 (paper sourced in article)
Researchers discover Autistic children inherit rare damaging noncoding variants from fathers but not mothers
A new study has confirmed that Hans Asperger, the Austrian pediatrician for whom a form of autism is named, collaborated with the Nazis and actively assisted in the killing of disabled children
A macque study finds a potential non-hormonal, fully reversible, and short-lived pharmacological male contraceptive that works through inhibition of sperm motility
Scientists discover mechanism behind motor neurone disease
Multistate Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce
In preclinical tests, researchers showed how a new compound can immobilize sperm temporarily without side effects
A common belief is that good-looking people also earn more money. But a new study turns this theory on its head. Researchers have found that people who are "very unattractive" may be the biggest earners, based on data from a study of 20,000 young Americans.
Acupuncture eases drug addiction withdrawal symptoms by activating peripheral nervous system, which stimulates neurons that restore dopamine levels.
An unprecedented wave of large-mammal extinctions is linked to prehistoric humans. Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and other recent human relatives hunted large mammal species to extinction. The magnitude and scale of the extinction wave surpasses any other recorded during the last 66 million years.
Scientist Can Now Stretch and Deform Diamonds
Scores of plant species are capable of living dormant under the soil for up to 20 years, enabling them to survive through difficult times
Associations of Prenatal and Child Sugar Intake With Child Cognition
A prototype early warning system for the four most common types of cancer makes a visible mole appear on the skin when calcium levels indicate a tumor has developed.
Doctors who prescribe homeopathy ignore other medical guidelines, finds new study which looked at all the 7618 primary care practices in England.
MIT engineers have developed a continuous manufacturing process that produces long strips of high-quality graphene. The team’s results are the first demonstration of an industrial, scalable method for manufacturing high-quality graphene.
Study: GMO Food Labels Could Burden Low-Income Consumers
New drug uses antibodies to stop chronic migraines by blocking the neural pathway that sends pain signals to the brain during a migraine. Phase III trials on about 1,000 subjects are complete now and there are already plans for it to be approved by the FDA.
Due to climate change the niche of giant trees is projected to increase by ~4 million km2 globally - "Our results imply that strategic management could in principle facilitate the expansion of giant forests, securing critically endangered biodiversity as well as carbon storage."
New microscope creates 3D movies of cells in living organisms. "It's like Star Trek" say Harvard researchers.
Molecular Evolution at a Meiosis Gene Mediates Species Differences in the Rate and Patterning of Recombination
Alzheimer’s Disease Starts in Childhood, with Symptoms Found in Babies Less Than a Year Old study in Metropolitan Mexico City finds . APOE4 carriers have higher suicide risk and higher odds of reaching NFT stage V at ? 40 years of age
Scientists Discover How to Bend and Stretch Diamonds—the Hardest Natural Material
Oil spills could be soaked up by a new floating substance that combines waste from the petroleum industry and cooking oil. The new polymer acted like a sponge to remove crude oil and diesel from seawater. The polymer can be squeezed to remove the oil and then reused.
Superionic ice has been created in the lab for the first time. The ultra-conductive version of ice, which accounts for 60% of Uranus and Neptune, was formed by compressing ice to 25,000 times the atmospheric pressure felt at sea level. The resulting ice was sixty times denser than regular water.
Cold Temp Exposure Causes Epigenetic Changes in Fat Cells
Researchers found that simply being told that a performer is a professional or a student changes the way the brain responds to music. They also found that overcoming this bias took a deliberate effort.
Americans waste 150,000 tons of food each day – equal to a pound per person. USDA research shows people with healthy diets rich in fruit and vegetables are the most wasteful.
Male fruit flies enjoy ejaculation. Fly brains showed increased signs of a rewarding experience after ejaculating, even with no females present.
In an example of recent human evolution, scientists find free divers from Southeast Asia evolved bigger spleens, thought to give them greater endurance when holding their breaths.
Bold and Aggressive Behavior Means Birds Thrive in Cities
Mars' tiny moons (Phobos and Deimos) formed after proto-Mars collided with a dwarf-planet-sized object, finds new study.
A stunning cure for one of the world's most devastating blood diseases: A pioneering gene therapy vanquishes beta thalassemia in a pivotal clinical trial.
Drowning caused 80% of deaths from Hurricane Harvey. Study finds 78% of those deaths occurred outside zones designated as being at higher risk for flooding. US authorities outline floodplains for 100 and 500 year floods that had a 1% and 0.2% probability respectively of occurring in any given year.
264 [deleted] The Standard American Diet is such a disaster that almost any other diet will outperform it.
14 mvea Journal Reference: Gotaro Kojima, Christina Avgerinou, Steve Iliffe, Kate Walters. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Reduces Incident Frailty Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2018; DOI: 10.1111/jgs.15251 Link: Abstract Objectives To conduct a systematic review of the literature on prospective cohort studies examining associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and incident frailty and to perform a meta-analysis to synthesize the pooled risk estimates. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched on September 14, 2017. We reviewed references of included studies and relevant review papers and performed forward citation tracking for additional studies. Corresponding authors were contacted for additional data necessary for a meta-analysis. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (mean age ≥60). Measurements Incident frailty risk according to adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Results Two reviewers independently screened the title, abstract, and full text to ascertain the eligibility of 125 studies that the systematic search of the literature identified, and four studies were included (5,789 older people with mean follow-up of 3.9 years). Two reviewers extracted data from the studies independently. All four studies provided adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of incident frailty risk according to three Mediterranean diet score (MDS) groups (0–3, 4–5, and 6–9). Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with significantly lower incident frailty risk (pooled OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.47–0.82, P = .001 for MDS 4–5; pooled OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.31–0.64, P < .001 for MDS 6–9) than poorer adherence (MDS 0–3). Neither significant heterogeneity (I2 = 0–16%, P = .30) nor evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with significantly lower risk of incident frailty in community-dwelling older people. Future studies should confirm these findings and evaluate whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet can reduce the risk of frailty, including in non-Mediterranean populations.
4 bravotipo Italian who visited USA two times and each time for three weeks in a row. Yes I love your country. As many pointed out the main difficulty in eating as I do at home (fresh fruit once a day and fresh vegetable two times a day) was finding the right options. We managed to do it in San Francisco and NY but it was pretty difficult in Nevada, Utah, Arizona and other remote areas. Let me also point out the HUGE portions. Many time I skipped dinner and split my order with my co traveller. In any case the lack of options of most menu is the main problem. Why having some simple grilled vegetables instead of fries is so difficult? Or a simple green salad with oil/salt/vinegar? I had to expressly ask for them as out of menu. I also noticed that in more expensive places vegetables were more available. Here in Italy also the cheapest place (except for fast food) have vegetables option for a very low cost. In any case I want to point out that I asked for these because I was grown up eating many veggies. And this bring back the problem to education and upbringing. Children eat what they parents eat (not what parents tell them). And of course in Italy is normal to spend a bit of time preparing meals at dinner (vegetables require a lot of time to prepare). So my guess is if American parents had more time for family maybe they could cook better and healthier. Just my anecdotal experience.
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9 asherrd tl;dr eating a well rounded diet is good for you. we've known this for decades. we just don't act on it.
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2 DingusMacLeod If everyone ate like that their whole lives we'd have sognificantly lower rates of obesity and obesity-related illnesses.
19 catsalways Another study in support of a plant based diet.🙂